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Tuekakas, also known as Chief Old Joseph, is born.
Lewis and Clark arrive in Nez Perce country. They leave their horses in the care of the Nez Perce and are given canoes and directions for traveling down to the Pacific.
Benjamin Bonneville and his fur traders struggle through Hells Canyon in December and are befriended by Nez Perce. They meet Looking Glass Sr.
Henry Spalding and wife Eliza establish a Presbyterian mission at Lapwai, Idaho.
Tuekakas camps near Lapwai,-converts to Christianity, and is given the name Joseph.
Chief Old joseph's infant son, the future Chief Joseph, is baptized as Ephraim.
Cayuse Indians kill Marcus and Narcissa Whitman at their mission near Walla Walla. To avoid danger, the Spaldings leave Lapwai.
Washington Territory is established, dividing the Nez Perce homeland in two parts.
Isaac 1. Stevens, governor of Washington Territory, negotiates a treaty with the Nez Perce reserving 7,000,000 acres of Idaho, Washington and Oregon for the tribe.
Congress ratifies the Treaty of 1855.
Gold is discovered on Nez Perce land at Pierce.
Lewiston is born.
Idaho Territory is created, dividing the Nez Perce homeland into three parts.
Chief Lawyer signs the Treaty of 1863, shrinking the Nez Perce Reservation to 700,000 acres. Chief Joseph's band refuses to sign
Congress ratifies the Treaty of 1863.
The first settlers arrive in the Wallowa Valley.
First council between settlers and the Wallowa band held where Bear Creek joins the Wallowa River.to try and iron out differences.
President Grant signs an executive order granting half the Wallowa Valley to the Nez Perce.
Rev. Henry Spalding dies and is buried in the Lapwa Mission Cemetery
President Grant rescinds his 1873 executive order.
Samuel Benedict kills Motsqueh and wounds Sarpsis llppilp.
Harry Mason whips two Nez Perce. A council of arbitration decides against the Indians.
The final council between the non-treaty Nez Perce and General Howard at Fort Lapwai, Howard gives the ultimatum that the non-treaty Nez Perce must quit roving and stay in one place. They must move onto a reservation in thirty days or be forced on by soldiers.
Nez Perce spokesman Toohoolhoolzote is jailed.
Joseph, White Bird, Husishusis Kute, and Looking Glass pick out their allotments on the reservation.
Following the defeat of Custer at the Battle of Little Bighorn in June of 1876, Dakota (Sioux) Chief Sitting Bull and 5,000 of his people arrive in Canada.
The Wallowa band crosses the Snake River at Dug Bar.
Views of the area traversed Nez perce campsites can be found at Buckhorn Springs Lookout, Joseph Canyon Viewpoint and tom-mah-talk-ke-sin-mah., Fields Spring State Park., Joseph Cave, the confluence of Joseph Creek and Grande Ronde River and Asotin Creek.
Wahlitits, Sarpsis llppilp, and Wetyetmas Wahyakt leave the Tolo Lake camp to find Larry Ott.
Anger at being forced to leave their homes and move onto the reservation three warriors took their personal revenge by killing four men living along the Salmon River.
Wahlitits gathered his cousin Sarpsis llppilp (Red Moccasin Tops) and his nephew Wetyetmas Wahyakt (Swan Necklace) to act as horseholder. The young men left the camp. Wahlitits and Sarpsis llppilp kill Richard Devine at Carver Creek, and Henry Elfers, Henry Beckrodge, and Robert Bland at John Day Creek. Sarpsis shoots Samuel Benedict in the legs. Upon hearing the news, the encampment at Tolo Lake breaks up. Nearby communities panic.
Looking Glass and Husishusis Kute hurry back to the reservation. The other three bands flee to a place of safety on Cottonwood Creek. The Norton and Chamberlin families leave Cottonwood for the safety of Mount Idaho at 9 p.m. Their wagons are attacked in the middle of the night.
John Chamberlin, his three-year-old daughter Hattie, and Benjamin Norton are killed. Lew Day and Joe Moore are fatally wounded. They were buried in the Mount Idaho cemetery.
A raiding party of seventeen warriors kills James Baker, Samuel Benedict, and August Bacon in White Bird and Harry Mason, William Osborne, and Francois Chodoze at Cooper Bar. Jack Manuel and his six-year-old daughter, Maggie, are wounded, and Jeanette Manuel is injured in a fall from her horse.
Ninety soldiers leave Fort Lapwai at 8:00 p.m. to begin driving the Nez Perce onto the reservation.
The Manuel house is burned. Perhaps Jeanette Manuel and her baby are inside.
After camping near Slate Creek the Nez Perce camp moves to Horseshoe Bend.
General Howard's troops bury dead soldiers on the battlefield at White Bird. Jack Manuel is found alive.
Howard camps at Horseshoe Bend. Hunter buries Mason, Osborne, and Chodoze.
Howard's troops begin to cross the Salmon River.
Captain Whipple's troops attack and plunder Looking Glass's village near Kooskia. The Looking Glass band repairs to Red Owl's camp on the South Fork of the Clearwater accompanied by the Palouse band of Husishusis Kute.
A scout and a squad of twelve men under the command of Lieutenant Rains are all killed near Cottonwood.
Nez Perce warriors and troops entrenched at Cottonwood skirmish throughout the day.
The Brave Seventeen, citizen volunteers from Mount Idaho, ride to the rescue of the troops at Cottonwood. One hundred thirteen soldiers watch from their trenches as Nez Perce warriors skirmish with the Brave Seventeen. Two volunteers are killed, and one is mortally wounded.
Capt. Randall along with Ben Evans and E.H. Houser of the Brave Seventeen would later be buried in Mount Idaho Cemetery.
Grangeville and Mount Idaho were the white settlements of the time.
Howard fails to cross the Salmon at Craig's Ferry
Looking Glass is joined by the bands of Joseph, White Bird, and Toohoolhoolzote.
Howard recrosses the Salmon at White Bird.
They encamp on a hill west of the South Fork of the Clearwater.
Nez Perce warriors harry the volunteers at Misery Hill, west of the South Fork of the Clearwater.
After leaving Grangeville, General Howard's troops camp at the way station of Walls.where he tries, in vain, to find out the location of the Nez Perce camp.
Howard surprises the Nez Perce, and the Battle of the Clearwater begins.
General Howard left camp without knowing the location of the Nez Perce camp.
The Nez Perce withdraw from the Battle of the Clearwater and camp that evening near Kamiah.
Troops occupy and plunder the former Nez Perce camp on the South Fork of the Clearwater.
The Nez Perce cross the Clearwater at Kamiah. Howard stalls on the south side of the river.
The Nez Perce offer a fake surrender while moving off to Weippe.
Volunteers unable to beat the Nez Perce to Weippe
With their quarry escaped and the opportunity for squeezing them between two forces gone, General Howard and his troops crossed the Clearwater Then a scouting party was sent out to follow the Nez Perce.
Returning from Montana, Red Heart's band of thirty-five people is arrested at Kamiah
The non-treaty bands head east on the Lolo Trail.
A scouting party is ambushed south of Weippe by the Nez Perce rear-guard.
The Nez Perce reach Lolo Hot Springs
Fort Fizzle is constructed five miles west of Lolo, Montana by soldiers sent from Fort Missoula.
Col. John Gibbon at Fort Shaw and his troops called upon to intercept the Nez Perce.
The Nez Perce camp with Chief Charlo near Stevensville.
Capt. Rawn makes a report on what has happened.
Reinforced, General Howard leaves Kamiah and camps at Weippe.
The Nez Perce spend two days shopping in Stevensville.
Howard camps at Musselshell Meadows.
In Stevensville some Nez Perce visit Buck Brothers store
Captain Spurgin's fifty axemen join Howard.
Howard's command camped at Weitas Meadows
Howard's command camped at Bald Mountain
Howard's command camped at Howard Camp
Colonel Gibbon's troops arrive in Stevensville.
The Nez Perce raid Lockwood's ranch on Rye Creek and camp above Ross Hole.
Colonel Gibbon camped along Sleeping Child Creek.
Howard has an extensive breakfast camp at Packer Meadows before moving on to camp at
Lolo Hot Springs with his cavalry and infantry.
The Nez Perce arrive at Big Hole.
Gibbon camps at the foot of the Continental Divide.
The Nez Perce remain at Big Hole.
General Howard and his cavalry camp at Stevensville while Gibbon camps on Trail Creek.
Howard camps at Rye Creek.
Howard camps on Trail Creek. while his infantry camps at Stevensville.
Radersburg tourists camp at Henrys Lake.
Howard leaves Big Hole.
The Nez Perce kill freighters on Birch Creek.
Howard camps at Red Rock stage station.
The Nez Perce reach Hole-in-the-Rock stage station
Howard camps at Snowline. He sends a detachment due east to Henrys Lake.
General Howard camps near Spencer.
The Nez Perce camp at Camas Meadows.
Howard's infantry catches up with cavalry which remains at the Camas Meadows camp for the night.
The Nez Perce camp at Henrys Lake nine where on August 10 nine tourists from Radersburg , Montana had stopped on their way to Yellowstone Park . The contingent of 40 soldiers under Lieut. Bacon sent due east from Snowline had already arrived
S.G. Fisher and fifty Bannock scouts join Howard.
Howard's command camps at Henrys Lake Howard rides to Virginia City to buy supplies and telegraph Generals Sherman and McDowell.
Howard was no longer in the territory (Columbia) he was responsible for.With his forces worn out Howard was ready to give up the pursuit. General Sherman, head of the entire U.S. Army had other ideas. A humbled Howard got the message.
Nez Perce scouts capture the ten Radersburg tourists. They are Frank Carpenter, Ida Carpenter, Emma Cowan, George Cowan, Henry Meyers, Al Oldham, A.J. Arnold, William Dinges, Harmon, Charles Mann.
The tourists were forced to travel with the Nez Perce up the Mary Mountain trail. Fortunately, a meeting with Poker Joe offered an opportunity for Arnold and Dingee to escape. During the trading shots were fired Confusion reigned with Cowan and Oldham shot. Meyers, Mann and Harmon made their escape.
By the end of the day, seven have escaped or been shot.
Howard's troops remain at Henrys Lake.
After crossing he Yellowstone River at Buffalo Ford (also called Nez Perce Ford) the Nez Perce chiefs held a council at their mid-day break and made a decision to release Radersburg tourists Emma Cowan, Ida Carpenter, and Frank Carpenter.
The Nez Perce camp at Indian Pond
While camped near Madison Junction Howards Scouts find Radersburg tourists Harmon and Mann
Ten Helena tourists spot the Nez Perce from the top of Sulphur Mountain
Howard's troops remain at Henrys Lake.
Nez Perce camp at Indian Pond
Radersburg tourists Emma Cowan, Ida Carpenter, and Frank Carpenter pass Otter Creek but do not see the Helena group as they head toward Mammoth Hot Springs.
Colonel Samuel D. Sturgis received a telegram from General Howard with information that the Nez Perce would cross the Shoshone River but he had his own opinion as to their likely path.
Leaving Indian Pond, the Nez Perce headed east along Pelican Creek
Howard returns from Virginia City to his command at Henry's Lake.
Not long after the Nez Perce leave, Howard's Scouts arrive at Indian Pond,
Howard leaves Henry's Lake.
George Cowan is picked up by Howard's entourage.
Howard goes over Mary Mountain Trail and camps near Mary Lake.
General Howard's aide-de-camp issues a memorandum prohibiting the killing of Nez Perce people left behind in camp.
Howard's advance scouts discovered an escaped prisioner along Pelican Creek.
A Nez Perce reconnaissance party encounters Lieutenant Doane's detachment at Henderson's ranch north of Mammoth. While retreating to the main Nez Perce camp, the scouts kill Helena tourist Dietrich at Mammoth Hot Springs.
Howard camps on the Yellowstone River near Mud Volcano.
Along Pelican Creek.Scout Fisher of Howard's advance scouts unexpectedly meets Irwin who has escaped from the Nez Perce camp.
Colonel Sturgis positions his troops near the mouth of Clarks Fork Canyon.
While camped on the Yellowstone the troops are finally washed down.
Howard camps near Yellowstone Falls.
Howard travels over Mount Washburn.
Howard crosses Baronett's bridge.
Sturgis moves his camp closer to Heart Mountain.
General Howard passes Cooke City.
Howard's scouts meets Sturgis's couriers.
General Howard joins the Nez Perce trail at Crandall Creek.
Sturgis heads to the Shoshone River.
The Nez Perce descend into Clarks Fork Canyon.
Reaching the top of Dead Indian Pass chief Scout S;G. Fisher discovers they have been tricked.
Sturgis catches up with Howard near Belfry.
The Nez Perce attempt to get support from their old friends the Crows.
Sturgis ordered to make a forced march and overtake the Nez Perce
The Nez Perce cross the Yellowstone River near Laurel.
Howard sends a courier to Col. Nelson Miles at Fort Keogh to intercept the Nez Perce.
Miles slows down hoping the Nez Perce will too - to give Miles time.
The Battle of Canyon Creek occurs when Colonel Sturgis catches up with the Nez Perce.
Sturgis continued his pursuit along today's Buffalo Trail Road
Sturgis camps on the Musselshell and decides not to continue pursuing the Nez Perce.
Colonel Miles leaves Fort Keogh (Miles City).
General Howard camps on the Musselshell after detouring down the Yellowstone to visit Pompey's Pillar
The Nez Perce camp near Judith Gap.
The Nez Perce camp near Lewistown.
Howard joins Sturgis on the Musselshell.
Major Ilges and thirty-six citizen volunteers arrive at Cow Island.
On the same day the Nez Perce were leaving the Cow Island area, Col. Nelson Miles arrives at the Missouri River near the mouth of the Musslshell River.
On Cow Creek Iliges skirmishes with Nez Perce.
Miles hears that the Nez Perce have already crossed the Missouri. He crosses the Missouri.
Miles charges the Nez Perce camp on Snake Creek.
Yesterday's cold and rain had turned to 5 inches of snow.
General Howard and Colonel Sturgis arrive at Carroll on the Missouri River.
Howard and seventeen men board the steamer Benton to go upriver.
Later, hostages are exchanged and negotiations resume.
Women and children were the final casualties of the war
Howard arrives at the Bear's Paw Battlefield after dark with escorts including two Nez Perce scouts.
Col. Miles makes promises to neighbouring tribes making escape diifficult.
Many are betrayed passing through Gros Ventres and Assiniboine territory
White Bird wonders how he will be treated by the Sioux who have already taken asylum in Canada.
Miles' caravan leaves Bear's Paw Battlefield on a return trip to Fort Keogh.
Sitting Bull Commission meets at Fort Walsh.
Major Walsh of the North West Mounted Police meets with the Nez Perce in Canada
Colonel Miles and the Nez Perce arrive at Fort Keogh.
Chief Joseph and 430 Nez Perce leave Fort Keogh for Fort Buford on their way to Fort Abraham Lincoln (Bismark, Dakota)
Chief Joseph and the overland group arrive at Fort Buford
After stopping a night at Fort Berthold, the Nez Perce arrive in Bismarck.
The Nez Perce were sent by train to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas by way of St. Paul.
The Nez Perce arrive at Fort Leavenworth.
Joseph and Yellow Bull visit President Hayes in Washington, D.C.
The North American Review publishes an article by Chief Joseph.
The Nez Perce are moved to the Oakland Reserve near Tonkawa, Oklahoma.
Chief White Bird is killed in Canada near Fort Macleod.
Twenty-three widows and orphans leave Oklahoma and go home to Idaho.
The 268 surviving Nez Perce are shipped to Wallula, Washington and are divided up: 118 return to the reservation in Idaho, and 149 go with Chief Joseph to the Colville reservation in north central Washington.
Joseph is still remembered in Oklahoma.
The shrinkage of Nez Perce homeland did not end with the Treaty of 1863. The Dawes Act of 1887 allotted 160 acres to each Indian adult and 80 acres to each minor child. The remaining 542,000 acres of the reservation were then ceded to the government and opened to white settlement. Today, less than 90,000 acres of the Nez Perce Reservation remains in Nez Perce hands.
Joseph visits the Wallowas for the first time since 1877.
Chief Joseph dies .on the Colville reservation.
Old loseph's remains were moved and reburied at Wallowa Lake.
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