Majors

The section on majors lists all majors available for the various degree programs offered by the Faculty of Arts and Science. Majors are listed alphabetically, and each entry provides pertinent information about the major and outlines the requirements. Further details may be obtained from Department Chairs, Program Coordinators, academic advising, or the Arts and Science Dean. Each entry also provides a web address for each program.

Sample Sequencing Plans

Sample sequencing plans are created to provide students with an example of how to plan courses for the duration of a program. Sample sequencing plans for each program and major can be found in the applicable Program Planning Guide.

a.Agricultural Biotechnology (B.Sc.)

Departments: Biological Sciences, Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Economics.

The major in Agricultural Biotechnology provides background for a diverse range of activities such as graduate study in the life sciences and career development within the agricultural industry; the program is often taken as a means of completing pre-professional requirements leading to a veterinary degree.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 23

Required Courses:

Agricultural Studies 1000 - The Evolution of Agriculture

Biochemistry 2000 - Introductory Biochemistry

Biology 1010 - Cellular Basis of Life

Biology 1020 - Diversity of Life

Biology 2000 - Principles of Genetics

Biology 2150 - Biostatistics

Biology 2200 - Principles of Ecology

Biology 2300 - Cell Biology

Biology 3000 - Gene Expression and Regulation

Biology 3005 - Genomes

Biology 3110 - Cell Signalling

Biology 3210 - Experimental Methods in Molecular and Cellular Biology

Biology 3400 - Principles of Microbiology

Chemistry 1000 - General Chemistry I

Chemistry 2000 - General Chemistry II

Chemistry 2500 - Organic Chemistry I

Economics 1010 - Introduction to Microeconomics

Economics 3300 - Agricultural Policy I

One of:

Biology 3420 - Animal Physiology

Biology 3460 - Plant Physiology

One of:

Biology 4100 - Advances in Biotechnology

Biology 4130 - Medical Genomics

One of:

Economics 2150 - Economics of Agricultural Issues

Economics 2350 - Economics of Agricultural Markets I

One of:

Mathematics 1410 - Elementary Linear Algebra

Mathematics 1560 - Calculus I

Mathematics 1565 - Accelerated Calculus I

One of:

Physics 1000 - Introduction to Physics I

Physics 1050 - Introduction to Biophysics

Recommended courses:

One of:

Neuroscience 2610 - Principles of Brain Structure and Function

Neuroscience 2620 - Principles of Behavioural Neuroscience

Neuroscience 3600 - Fundamental Neurobiology

Biology 4155 - Cannabis and Health

Biology 4570 - Plant Breeding and Genetics

Notes:

A student who successfully completes this degree program and major may apply to the Alberta Institute of Agrologists (AIA) to be registered as a Professional Agrologist within Alberta. Students should contact the Coordinator of Agricultural Biotechnology early in the program for further information.

Concentration: Agricultural Business (optional)

Agricultural Biotechnology majors in the B.Sc. degree program may declare a Concentration in Agricultural Business.

Required Courses:

Accounting 2100 - Introductory Accounting

Marketing 2020 - Marketing

Three of:

Economics 3030 - Managerial Economics

Economics 3780/Management 3780 - Principles of Industrial Organization

1Human Resources and Labour Relations 3050 - Human Resource Management

Management 3010 - Business Law

Political Science 2210 - Canadian Politics and Government

Notes:

1Corequisite: Management 1000

For students who complete all requirements, the Concentration in Agricultural Business will be acknowledged on the official academic transcript.

b.Agricultural Studies (B.A.)

Department: Economics

Agricultural Studies is a broad multidisciplinary program encompassing a purposeful blend of the physical sciences, economics, and other social sciences. The aim of the program is to improve the understanding and practice of activities that transform natural capital, plants, and animals to satisfy myriad human wants. The curriculum enables aspiring agriculturalists to explore and learn about the physical and economic interrelationships between agricultural production, marketing and trade, nutrient management, water, grazing, rangeland, and riparian management. The program provides the foundation for a wide variety of career alternatives related to primary production, input supply services including banking, commodity marketing, and processing, and agri-food retailing.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 20

Required core (10 courses):

Agricultural Studies 1000 - The Evolution of Agriculture

Agricultural Studies 3300 - Modelling of Agricultural Systems

Agricultural Studies 4000 - Seminar in Agricultural Issues

Agricultural Studies 4300 - Advanced Modelling of Agricultural Systems

Biology 1020 - Diversity of Life

Economics 1010 - Introduction to Microeconomics

Geography 1200 - Introduction to Human Geography

Statistics 1770 - Introduction to Probability and Statistics

One of:

Philosophy 2001 - Introduction to Ethics

Philosophy 2236 - Environmental Philosophy

One of:

Anthropology 1000 - The Anthropological Perspective

Political Science 1000 - Introduction to Political Science

Sociology 1000 - Introduction to Sociology

Subfield requirements (10 courses):

Eight courses (24.0 credit hours) from either subfield list (1. or 2.) below

Two courses (6.0 credit hours) from the other subfield list below

Four of the subfield courses (12.0 credit hours) must be at the 3000/4000 level

Students choosing Agricultural Economics as their eight-course subfield must complete the Quantitative Methods requirement: Economics 2900. Students choosing Rural Sociology and Development as their eight-course subfield must complete the Research Methodology requirement: Sociology 2100

1.Agricultural Economics

Economics 1012 - Introduction to Macroeconomics

Economics 2150 - Economics of Agricultural Issues

Economics 2350 - Economics of Agricultural Markets I

Economics 2750 - Quantitative Methods in Economics

Economics 3010 - Intermediate Microeconomic Theory

Economics 3030 - Managerial Economics

Economics 3220 - Environmental Economics

Economics 3300 - Agricultural Policy I

Economics 3350 - Economics of Agricultural Markets II

Economics 4300 - Agricultural Policy II

Quantitative Methods Requirement:

Economics 2900 - Economics and Business Statistics

2.Rural Sociology and Development

Economics 2150 - Economics of Agricultural Issues

Economics 3300 - Agricultural Policy I

Economics 3800 - Economic Development

Economics 4300 - Agricultural Policy II

Geography 1000 - Introduction to Physical Geography

Geography 2210 - Spatial Organization of Economic Activity

Geography 2700 - Geographical Data and Analysis

Geography 3210 - Food Systems Analysis

Political Science 2210 - Canadian Politics and Government

Political Science 3260 - Canadian Public Policy

Political Science 3400 - Public Administration

Sociology 3110 - Survey Research

Sociology 3120 - Qualitative Research Methods

Research Methodology Requirement:

Sociology 2100 - Research Methodology

Technical Studies Term (five courses)

Students are required to complete a term of study at an approved college. The Technical Studies term counts as the equivalent of 15.0 credit hours at the University of Lethbridge (i.e., three unspecified 2000-level and two unspecified 3000-level Agricultural Studies courses).

The Technical Studies term should be taken after at least 20 university courses have been completed and prior to registration in the final 10 courses for the degree.

Students must have the college course selection approved by the Coordinator of Agricultural Studies. Further details are available from the Coordinator.

Notes

Courses which appear in both subfield lists may be counted in only one of the subfields. Students choosing Agricultural Economics as their eight-course subfield must choose two courses from the Rural Sociology and Development subfield which are not Economics courses.

Applied Studies, Independent Studies and Topics courses may be counted toward the subfield requirements provided they are (1) clearly related to one of the subfields and (2) approved by the Coordinator of Agricultural Studies.

Students may not receive credit for courses at the University of Lethbridge for which close equivalents have been taken at the college, and vice versa. Students must ensure that their course selection has been approved by the Coordinator of Agricultural Studies.

Students wishing to pursue graduate studies in Agricultural Economics should also include Economics 3012, Economics 4010, Economics 4012, and Mathematics 1560 in their programs.

A student who successfully completes this major may apply to the Alberta Institute of Agrologists (AIA) to be registered as a Professional Agrologist within Alberta. Students should contact the Coordinator of Agricultural Studies early in the program for further information.

Concentration: Agricultural Business (optional)

Agricultural Studies majors in the B.A. degree program may declare a Concentration in Agricultural Business.

Required Courses:

Accounting 2100 - Introductory Accounting

Marketing 2020 - Marketing

Three of:

Economics 3030 - Managerial Economics

Economics 3780/Management 3780 - Principles of Industrial Organization

1Human Resources and Labour Relations 3050 - Human Resource Management

Management 3010 - Business Law

Political Science 2210 - Canadian Politics and Government

Notes:

1Corequisite: Management 1000

Students may not double count courses required for the Concentration in Agricultural Business in fulfilling requirements for subfields of the Major in Agricultural Studies. In such cases, students must select another option from the subfield list.

For students who complete all requirements, the Concentration in Agricultural Business will be acknowledged on the official academic transcript.

c.Agricultural Studies (B.Sc.)

Departments: Biological Sciences, Chemistry and Biochemistry, Economics, and Geography and Environment

Agricultural Studies is a broad multidisciplinary program encompassing the physical sciences, economics, and other social sciences. The aim of the program is to improve the understanding and practice of activities that transform natural capital, plants, and animals to satisfy myriad human wants. The curriculum enables aspiring agriculturalists to explore and learn about the physical and economic interrelationships between agricultural production, marketing and trade, nutrient management, water, grazing, rangeland, and riparian management. The program provides the foundation for a wide variety of career alternatives related to primary production, input supply services including banking, commodity marketing, and processing, and agri-food retailing.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 20

Required core (12 courses):

Agricultural Studies 1000 - The Evolution of Agriculture

Agricultural Studies 3300 - Modelling of Agricultural Systems

Agricultural Studies 4000 - Seminar in Agricultural Issues

Agricultural Studies 4300 - Advanced Modelling of Agricultural Systems

Biology 1010 - Cellular Basis of Life

Biology 1020 - Diversity of Life

Biology 2000 - Principles of Genetics

Chemistry 1110 - Chemistry for Life Sciences I

Economics 1010 - Introduction to Microeconomics

Geography 1000 - Introduction to Physical Geography

Statistics 1770 - Introduction to Probability and Statistics

One of:

Computer Science 1620 - Fundamentals of Programming I

Mathematics 1010 - Introduction to Calculus

Mathematics 1560 - Calculus I

Mathematics 1565 - Accelerated Calculus I

Physics 1050 - Introduction to Biophysics

Subfield requirements (eight courses):

Six courses (18.0 credit hours) from either subfield list (1. or 2.) below

Two courses (6.0 credit hours) from the other subfield list below

Four of the subfield courses (12.0 credit hours) must be at the 3000/4000 level

1.Biological Sciences

Biology 2150 - Biostatistics

Biology 2200 - Principles of Ecology

1Biology 2300 - Cell Biology

Biology 3420 - Animal Physiology

Biology 3460 - Plant Physiology

Biology 3520 - Invertebrate Zoology

Biology 3530 - Vertebrate Zoology

Biology 3560 - Integrative Plant Biology

Biology 3700 - Ecosystem Ecology

Biology 3710 - Population Biology

Biology 3720 - Community Ecology

Biology 4570 - Plant Breeding and Genetics

Chemistry 2120 - Chemistry for Life Sciences II

Environmental Science 2000 - Fundamentals of Environmental Science

2.Geography

Environmental Science 2000 - Fundamentals of Environmental Science

Geography 2030 - Geomorphology

Geography 2065 - Physical Geology

Geography 2300 - Weather and Climate

Geography 2700 - Geographical Data and Analysis

Geography 2735 - Introduction to Geographical Information Science

Geography 3075 - Environmental Resources Management

Geography 3080 - Soils

Geography 3210 - Food Systems Analysis

Geography 3400 - Hydrology

Geography 3700 - Mapping in the Cloud

Geography 3720 - Remote Sensing

Geography 3740 - Geographical Information Systems

Geography 4060 - Agricultural Soil Management

Geography 4065 - Irrigation Science

Geography 4400 - Advanced Hydrology

Geography 4725 - Advanced Remote Sensing

Geography 4740 - Advanced Geographical Information Systems

Technical Studies Term (five courses)

Students are required to complete a term of study at an approved college. The Technical Studies term counts as the equivalent of 15.0 credit hours at the University of Lethbridge (i.e., three unspecified 2000-level and two unspecified 3000-level Agricultural Studies courses).

The Technical Studies term should be taken after at least 20 university courses have been completed and prior to registration in the final 10 courses for the degree.

Students must have the college course selection approved by the Coordinator of Agricultural Studies. Further details are available from the Coordinator.

Notes

1Corequisite required: Biochemistry 2000.

Applied Studies, Independent Studies and Topics courses may be counted toward the subfield requirements provided they are (1) clearly related to one of the subfields and (2) they are approved by the Coordinator of Agricultural Studies.

Students may not receive credit for courses at the University of Lethbridge for which close equivalents have been taken at the college, and vice versa. Students must ensure that their course selection has been approved by the Coordinator of Agricultural Studies.

Students wishing to pursue the Concentration in Geographical Information Science must complete Geography 2735 among the eight courses required in the Geography subfield.

A student who successfully completes this major may apply to the Alberta Institute of Agrologists (AIA) to be registered as a Professional Agrologist within Alberta. Students should contact the Coordinator of Agricultural Studies early in the program for further information.

Concentration: Agricultural Business (optional)

Agricultural Studies majors in the B.Sc. degree program may declare a Concentration in Agricultural Business.

Required Courses:

Accounting 2100 - Introductory Accounting

Marketing 2020 - Marketing

Three of:

Economics 3030 - Managerial Economics

Economics 3780/Management 3780 - Principles of Industrial Organization

1Human Resources and Labour Relations 3050 - Human Resource Management

Management 3010 - Business Law

Political Science 2210 - Canadian Politics and Government

Notes:

1Corequisite: Management 1000

For students who complete all requirements, the Concentration in Agricultural Business will be acknowledged on the official academic transcript.

Concentration: Geographical Information Science (optional)

Agricultural Studies majors in the B.Sc. degree program may declare a Concentration in Geographical Information Science.

Required Courses:

Computer Science 1620 - Fundamentals of Programming I

Geography 3720 - Remote Sensing

Geography 3740 - Geographical Information Systems

Geography 4725 - Advanced Remote Sensing

Geography 4740 - Advanced Geographical Information Systems

Notes:

An alternate Geography course may be counted toward the Concentration requirements provided (1) it is clearly related to Geographical Information Science and (2) it is approved by the Chair of the Department of Geography.

Students may not double count courses required for the Concentration in Geographical Information Science in fulfilling requirements for the major. In such cases, students must select another option.

For students who complete all the requirements, the Concentration in Geographical Information Science will be acknowledged on the official academic transcript.

d.Anthropology (B.A.)

Department: Anthropology

Anthropology is the academic study of the diversity of human life in local settings, whether in the past or present. The particulars of any local life, society, or culture, however, are not isolated from global influence. Contemporary anthropology examines the material, social, and cultural conditions of human behaviour and life from this locally global perspective. Traditionally, long-term ethnographic and archaeological fieldwork in other societies has been the hallmark of the anthropological study of the human condition, but anthropologists are also cultural critics considering issues of race, gender, power, space, and government in their own societies as well. The anthropological perspective makes significant contributions to fields as diverse as health, education, international development, religion, policy, urban studies, indigenous studies, economics, and politics.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 13

Required courses:

Anthropology 1000 - The Anthropological Perspective

Anthropology 2210 - Cultures of the World (Series)

Anthropology 2410 - Anthropological Approaches to Prehistory

Anthropology 3000 - Anthropological Thought

Anthropology 3010 - Methods, Knowledge, and Ethics

Two additional courses (6.0 credit hours) in Anthropology at the 3000 or 4000 level

Two courses (6.0 credit hours) in Anthropology at the 4000 level

Four additional courses (12.0 credit hours) in Anthropology at the 2000 level or above

Notes

Independent Studies courses, Applied Studies courses, and the Undergraduate Thesis may not be counted as part of the minimum requirements for the major.

e.Applied Statistics (B.Sc.)

Departments: Mathematics and Computer Science, Economics, Geography and Environment, and Psychology

Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. Application of statistical techniques is an essential part of decision making and study in a wide range of disciplines such as astronomy, biology, education, economics, geography, engineering, genetics, marketing, medicine, psychology, public health, and sports, among many.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 21-23

Required courses:

Computer Science 1620 - Fundamentals of Programming I

Mathematics 1410 - Elementary Linear Algebra

Statistics 1770 - Introduction to Probability and Statistics

Statistics 2200 - Survey Design and Analysis

Statistics 3500 - Mathematical Probability

Statistics 3510 - Mathematical Statistics

Statistics 3700 - Design and Analysis of Experiments

One of:

Mathematics 1560 - Calculus I

Mathematics 1565 - Accelerated Calculus I

One of:

Mathematics 2560 - Calculus II

Mathematics 2565 - Accelerated Calculus II

One of:

Statistics 2780 - Statistical Inference

Economics 2900 - Economics and Business Statistics

One course (3.0 credit hours) at the 4000 level in Statistics

Required Concentration:

For the Major in Applied Statistics, all students must complete one of the following concentrations:

1.Concentration in Economics (10 courses)

Economics 1010 - Introduction to Microeconomics

Economics 1012 - Introduction to Macroeconomics

Economics 2750 - Quantitative Methods in Economics

Economics 3010 - Intermediate Microeconomic Theory

Economics 3012 - Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory

Economics 3950 - Econometrics I

Economics 4960 - Econometrics II

One additional course (3.0 credit hours) in Economics at the 3000/4000 level

Two additional courses (6.0 credit hours) in Economics at the 4000 level

2.Concentration in Geography (10 courses)

Geography 1000 - Introduction to Physical Geography

Geography 1200 - Introduction to Human Geography

Geography 2210 - Spatial Organization of Economic Activity

Geography 2700 - Geographical Data and Analysis

Geography 2735 - Introduction to Geographical Information Science

Geography 3720 - Remote Sensing

Geography 3740 - Geographical Information Systems

One of:

Geography 2030 - Geomorphology

Geography 2300 - Weather and Climate

One of:

Geography 3735 - Analysis of Environmental Data

Geography 4725 - Advanced Remote Sensing

Geography 4740 - Advanced Geographical Information Systems

Remote Sensing 4650 - Physics of Remote Sensing

One additional course (3.0 credit hours) in Geography at the 3000/4000 level

3.Concentration in Psychology (12 courses)

Psychology 1010 - Introduction to Psychology A: Evolution, Mechanisms, and Cognition/Perception

Psychology 1020 - Introduction to Psychology B: Developmental, Sociocultural, and Abnormal

Psychology 1030 - Methods and Statistics A

Psychology 2030 - Methods and Statistics B

Psychology 3400 - Advanced Research Design and Data Analysis

Four courses (12.0 credit hours) in Psychology or Neuroscience at the 2000 level

Two additional courses (6.0 credit hours) in Psychology or Neuroscience at the 3000/4000 level

One course (3.0 credit hours) in Psychology at the 4000 level

For students who complete all requirements for the Major in Applied Statistics with one of the above concentrations, the concentration will be acknowledged on the official academic transcript.

Notes

It is strongly recommended that a student attain a grade of ‘C’ or higher in any course used to satisfy prerequisites for courses in Computer Science, Mathematics, and Statistics.

f.Archaeology (B.A.)

Department: Geography and Environment

Archaeology is the study of the human past through material culture. Uniquely suited to understanding long-term change, archaeology facilitates the exploration of diverse cultures across different regions and times. It is an intrinsically multi-disciplinary field of study; therefore, the major allows students to approach archaeology from different academic perspectives. Students in the program will also gain a specialization in particular regions, periods, or methods through lecture courses, laboratory analysis, and field work.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 21

Required courses:

Anthropology 1000 - The Anthropological Perspective

Archaeology 1000 - Introduction to Archaeology

Archaeology 2610 - Old World Archaeology

Archaeology 3300 - Archaeological Field Work (Series)

Archaeology 3700 - Geoarchaeology and Landscape Analysis

Archaeology 3720 - Archaeological Materials Analysis

Archaeology 4100 - Advanced Archaeological Theory (Series)

History 2001 - Main Themes in Ancient History

One course (3.0 credit hours) in a language other than English

One of:

Geography 1000 - Introduction to Physical Geography

Geography 1200 - Introduction to Human Geography

One of:

History 1000 - The Western World

History 1200 - World History

One of:

Indigenous Studies 1000 - Introduction to Indigenous Studies I: Canadian Contexts

Religious Studies 1000 - Introduction to World Religions

Four additional courses (12.0 credit hours) in Archaeology at the 3000 or 4000 level

Three additional courses (9.0 credit hours) in Anthropology, Geography, History, Indigenous Studies, or Religious Studies at the 3000 or 4000 level

Two additional courses (6.0 credit hours) in Anthropology, Geography, History, Indigenous Studies, or Religious Studies at the 2000 level or higher

g.Archaeology and Geography (B.Sc.)

Department: Geography and Environment

Archaeology is the study of the human past based on cultural remains viewed in their spatial context. Archaeological research is often pursued using spatial and environmental models developed within the field of Geography. The major in Archaeology and Geography allows students to combine theoretical and methodological approaches, in tandem with advanced studies of particular cultures through conventional lecture courses and field work.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 21

Required courses:

Anthropology 1000 - The Anthropological Perspective

Archaeology 1000 - Introduction to Archaeology

Archaeology 2610 - Old World Archaeology

Archaeology 3300 - Archaeological Field Work (Series)

Archaeology 3700 - Geoarchaeology and Landscape Analysis

Archaeology 3720 - Archaeological Materials Analysis

Archaeology 4100 - Advanced Archaeological Theory (Series)

Geography 1000 - Introduction to Physical Geography

Geography 1200 - Introduction to Human Geography

Geography 2030 - Geomorphology

Geography 2700 - Geographical Data and Analysis

Geography 2735 - Introduction to Geographical Information Science

One course (3.0 credit hours) in a language other than English

Four additional courses (12.0 credit hours) in Archaeology at the 3000 or 4000 level

Three additional courses (9.0 credit hours) in Geography or Anthropology at the 3000 or 4000 level

One additional course (3.0 credit hours) in Geography or Anthropology at the 2000 level or higher

Concentration: Geographical Information Science (optional)

Majors in Archaeology and Geography may declare a Concentration in Geographical Information Science.

Required Courses:

Computer Science 1620 - Fundamentals of Programming I

Geography 3720 - Remote Sensing

Geography 3740 - Geographical Information Systems

Geography 4725 - Advanced Remote Sensing

Geography 4740 - Advanced Geographical Information Systems

Notes:

An alternate Geography course may be counted toward the concentration requirements provided (1) it is clearly related to Geographical Information Science and (2) it is approved by the Chair of the Department of Geography.

Students may not double count courses required for the Concentration in Geographical Information Science in fulfilling requirements for the Major in Archaeology and Geography.

For students who complete all requirements, the Concentration in Geographical Information Science will be acknowledged on the official academic transcript.

h.Art (B.A.)

The major in Art for the B.A. is administered by the Faculty of Fine Arts. Please refer to the Faculty of Fine Arts section for more information on major requirements.

i.Biochemistry (B.Sc.)

Departments: Biological Sciences, and Chemistry and Biochemistry

Biochemistry is the study of all living systems at the molecular level. It looks at the chemical and physical basis of life and how these microcosms interact with their environments. The Biochemistry program will help students develop a strong background in the basic sciences and extensive laboratory skills. Thereby, the Biochemistry program provides background for a diverse range of careers in the life sciences, including professional programs such as medicine and veterinary medicine.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 24

Required courses:

Biochemistry 2000 - Introductory Biochemistry

Biochemistry 3100 - Proteins, Enzymes and Nucleic Acids

Biochemistry 3300 - Bioenergetics and Metabolism

Biology 1010 - Cellular Basis of Life

Biology 1020 - Diversity of Life

Biology 2000 - Principles of Genetics

Biology 2300 - Cell Biology

Biology 3000 - Gene Expression and Regulation

Biology 3210 - Experimental Methods in Molecular and Cellular Biology

Chemistry 1000 - General Chemistry I

Chemistry 2000 - General Chemistry II

Chemistry 2410 - Analytical Chemistry I

Chemistry 2500 - Organic Chemistry I

Chemistry 2600 - Organic Chemistry II

Chemistry 2740 - Physical Chemistry I

Physics 2000 - Introduction to Physics II

One of:

Mathematics 1560 - Calculus I

Mathematics 1565 - Accelerated Calculus I

One of:

Mathematics 2560 - Calculus II

Mathematics 2565 - Accelerated Calculus II

One of:

Physics 1000 - Introduction to Physics I (recommended)

Physics 1050 - Introduction to Biophysics

1Engineering 2060 - Engineering Mechanics

One of:

Biochemistry 3000 - Studies in Biochemistry (Series)

Biochemistry 3700/Neuroscience 3700 - Introduction to Bioinformatics

Interdisciplinary Studies 3200 - Genetically Engineered Machines

Biology 3400 - Principles of Microbiology

Two of:

Biochemistry 3000 - Studies in Biochemistry (Series)

Biochemistry 3700/Neuroscience 3700 - Introduction to Bioinformatics

Biochemistry 3990 - Independent Study

Biochemistry 4990 - Independent Study

Biochemistry 4995 - Undergraduate Thesis (6.0 credit hours)

Biology 3005 - Genomes

Biology 3110 - Cell Signalling

Biology 3310 - Developmental Biology

Biology 3400 - Principles of Microbiology

1Biology 3420 - Animal Physiology

1Biology 3460 - Plant Physiology

Chemistry 3410 - Analytical Chemistry II

1Chemistry 3730 - Physical Chemistry II

Chemistry 3830 - Inorganic Chemistry I

Chemistry 3840 - Inorganic Chemistry II

Chemistry 4000 - Advanced Chemistry (Series)

Chemistry 4010 - Advanced Chemistry with Laboratory (Series)

Interdisciplinary Studies 3200 - Genetically Engineered Machines

Neuroscience 3600 - Fundamental Neurobiology

Two of:

Any Biochemistry course at the 4000 level

Biology 4100 - Advances in Biotechnology

Biology 4130 - Medical Genomics

Biology 4140 - RNA Biology

Biology 4155 - Cannabis and Health

Biology 4180 - Natural Products

Biology 4200 - Techniques in Molecular Biology

Biology 4230 - Molecular and Cellular Biology of Cancer

Recommended courses:

The following courses are recommended for completion of the Liberal Education List Requirement:

Philosophy 2220 - Philosophy of Mind

Philosophy 3270 - Theory of Knowledge

Philosophy 3402 - Biomedical Ethics

English 1900 - Introduction to Language and Literature

Writing 1000 - Introduction to Academic Writing

The following courses are recommended as electives:

Biology 2150 - Biostatistics

Computer Science 1620 - Fundamentals of Programming I

Philosophy 2233 - Philosophy and the World View of Science: Earth and Life Sciences

Notes

1This course has a prerequisite that is not required for the major. See the Course Catalogue for more information.

Applied Studies may not be counted as part of the minimum requirements for the major.

Students should choose appropriate 3000-level Biology or Chemistry courses to meet prerequisites for 4000-level courses in Biochemistry and/or Biology.

It is strongly recommended that students who are planning to pursue graduate studies in Biochemistry consider the Undergraduate Thesis option during the final two terms of their fourth year. Students interested in this option should consult potential supervisors at an early stage to discuss their background preparation. The Undergraduate Thesis course (Biochemistry 4995; 6.0 credit hours) will satisfy the first “Two of” list requirement, above.

j.Biological Sciences (B.Sc.)

Department: Biological Sciences

The Biological Sciences delve into the world of living organisms - from microbes, to human beings, to entire ecosystems - on, under and above the earth. Exploring the nature of life leads biologists out into the world to study how organisms interact with their environment, how they function, and how they evolved. The curriculum provides basic studies in molecular and cellular biology, organismal biology, and ecology and evolutionary biology during a student's first two years, with subsequent opportunities for specialization. Advanced courses also offer opportunities for independent laboratory or field research projects in the three areas. The program provides background for a diverse range of careers in the life sciences and a gateway to professional programs such as medicine and veterinary medicine.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 23

Required courses:

Biochemistry 2000 - Introductory Biochemistry

Biology 1010 - Cellular Basis of Life

Biology 1020 - Diversity of Life

Biology 2000 - Principles of Genetics

Biology 2150 - Biostatistics

Biology 2200 - Principles of Ecology

Biology 2300 - Cell Biology

Biology 3300 - Evolution

Biology 4500 - Seminars in Biological Sciences

Chemistry 1000 - General Chemistry I

Chemistry 2000 - General Chemistry II

Chemistry 2500 - Organic Chemistry I

One of:

Mathematics 1410 - Elementary Linear Algebra

Mathematics 1560 - Calculus I

Mathematics 1565 - Accelerated Calculus I

One of:

Physics 1000 - Introduction to Physics I

Physics 1050 - Introduction to Biophysics (preferred)

One of:

One course (3.0 credit hours) in English at the 1000 level or higher

Writing 1000 - Introduction to Academic Writing

1Six courses (18.0 credit hours) in Biology at the 3000 level, including two from each of the subfield lists.

List 1 - Cellular and Molecular Biology

Biochemistry 3100 - Proteins, Enzymes and Nucleic Acids

Biochemistry 3700/Neuroscience 3700 - Introduction to Bioinformatics

Biology 3000 - Gene Expression and Regulation

Biology 3005 - Genomes

Biology 3110 - Cell Signalling

Biology 3210 - Experimental Methods in Molecular and Cellular Biology

Biology 3400 - Principles of Microbiology

List 2 - Organismal Biology

Biology 3310 - Developmental Biology

Biology 3420 - Animal Physiology

Biology 3460 - Plant Physiology

Biology 3520 - Invertebrate Zoology

Biology 3530 - Vertebrate Zoology

Biology 3560 - Integrative Plant Biology

List 3 - Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Biology 3630 - Field Biology

Biology 3660 - Field Botany

Biology 3700 - Ecosystem Ecology

Biology 3710 - Population Biology

Biology 3720 - Community Ecology

Two additional courses (6.0 credit hours) in Biology at the 4000 level.

Notes

1Topics courses (Biology 3850) may be assigned to one of the Biological Sciences lists at the time of scheduling. Please refer to the current term timetable.

Applied Studies, Independent Studies, and the Undergraduate Thesis may not be counted as part of the minimum requirements for the major; however, they are strongly encouraged for students taking courses beyond this minimum.

Concentration: Research Internship (optional)

Students completing the major in Biological Sciences for the B.Sc. may declare a Research Internship Concentration.

Admission Requirements:

Students interested in the Research Internship option will need to qualify according to one of the following routes:

1.Direct Entry

Students applying to the Research Internship Concentration with fewer than four university courses completed will be considered direct entry applicants. Direct entry applicants must present a minimum 80% grade in Biology 30 and a minimum 75% admission average (see Admission).

2.Delayed Entry

Students applying to the Research Internship Concentration after completing four or more university courses will be considered delayed entry applicants. Delayed entry applicants must present one of Biology 1010 or Biology 1020 and a minimum GPA of 3.00 (calculated on all completed university-level courses).

Fulfillment of one of the above admission routes does not guarantee admission due to a limited number of seats. Students may be ranked according to GPA, and may be asked for a Letter of Intent, references, and/or an interview.

Continuation:

Students admitted to the Research Internship Concentration must maintain a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.00. Students who fall below 3.00 will be removed from the concentration.

Required courses:

Biology 2001 - Research Internship I: Scientific Discovery

Biology 2002 - Research Internship II: Scientific Data and Analysis

Biology 3001 - Research Internship III: Communicating Science

One of:

Biology 4995 - Undergraduate Thesis (6.0 credit hours)

Two Independent Study courses (6.0 credit hours) in Biology at the 3000/4000 level

Notes

Students are encouraged to complete additional research intensive activities (Applied Studies, Independent Studies, Co-operative Education).

For students who complete all requirements, the Research Internship Concentration will be acknowledged on the official academic transcript.

Concentration: Biomedical Sciences (optional)

Students completing the major in Biological Sciences for the B.Sc. may declare a Concentration in Biomedical Sciences.

Required courses:

Biology 3110 - Cell Signalling

One of:

Biology 3000 - Gene Expression and Regulation

Biology 3005 - Genomes

One of:

Biology 3310 - Developmental Biology

Biology 3420 - Animal Physiology

Two of:

Biology 4130 - Medical Genomics

Biology 4140 - RNA Biology

Biology 4155 - Cannabis and Health

Biology 4180 - Natural Products

Biology 4230 - Molecular and Cellular Biology of Cancer

Biology 4440 - Toxicology

Notes

Students may not double count courses required for the Concentration in Biomedical Sciences in fulfilling requirements for the major. In such cases, students must select another option.

For students who complete all requirements with a GPA of at least 3.00 calculated on the concentration courses, the Concentration in Biomedical Sciences will be acknowledged on the official academic transcript.

Concentration: Conservation and Biodiversity (optional)

Students completing the major in Biological Sciences for the B.Sc. may declare a Concentration in Conservation and Biodiversity.

Required courses:

Biology 4605 - Conservation Biology

One of:

Biology 3520 - Invertebrate Zoology

Biology 3530 - Vertebrate Zoology

Biology 3560 - Integrative Plant Biology

Three of:

Biology 3630 - Field Biology or Biology 3660 - Field Botany

Biology 3700 - Ecosystem Ecology

Biology 3710 - Population Biology

Biology 3720 - Community Ecology

Biology 4210 - Environmental Genomics

Biology 4700 - Molecular Ecology

Biology 4740 - Behavioural Ecology

1Political Science 3260 - Canadian Public Policy or Philosophy 2236 - Environmental Philosophy or
Economics 3220 - Environmental Economics1

2Biology 3990 - Independent Study or Biology 4990 - Independent Study2

Notes

1Prerequisite required that is not part of the major.

2One Independent Study may be used as part of the concentration provided (1) it is clearly related to Conservation and Biodiversity and (2) it is approved by the Chair of the Department of Biological Sciences.

Students may not double count courses required for the Concentration in Conservation and Biodiversity in fulfilling requirements for the major. In such cases, students must select another option.

For students who complete all requirements, the Concentration in Conservation and Biodiversity will be acknowledged on the official academic transcript.

k.Canadian Studies (B.A.)

The Canadian Studies major is for students wishing to deepen their understanding of Canada. The major comprises a core of courses that provide a foundation for more focused and advanced study. Beyond the core, students choose from amongst several interdisciplinary thematic areas. Many Canadian Studies graduates work in business, as teachers, or in government at all levels; others have gone on to study for advanced degrees in law and public administration.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 20

Required core (8-12 courses):

A minimum of eight courses (24.0 credit hours) and a maximum of 12 courses (36.0 credit hours) from the following list:

English 2000 - Survey of Canadian Literature

Two of:

French 1000 - Beginners' French I

French 1100 - Beginners' French II

French 2001 - Intermediate Language for Immersion Graduates

French 2010 - Intermediate Language I

French 2020 - Intermediate Language II

French 2200 - Culture and Civilization I

French 2250 - French Immersion

French 2300 - Introduction to Modern Literature and Literary Analysis

Two of:

Economics 3170 - Economic History of Canada

History 2710 - Canada to 1867

History 2720 - Canada Since 1867

Three of:

Geography 2600 - Canada

Indigenous Studies 2100 - Indigenous Peoples and Law

Indigenous Studies 2400 - Comparative Traditional Indigenous Economies

Indigenous Studies 2500 - Indigenous Histories of Canada

Political Science 2210 - Canadian Politics and Government

Sociology 2010 - Canadian Society

Sociology 2410 - Sociology of Gender

Independent Study (one course)

One Independent Study course (3.0 credit hours) in Canadian Studies at the 3000/4000 level

Options (7-11 courses):

A minimum of seven courses (21.0 credit hours) and a maximum of 11 courses (33.0 credit hours) from the following 3000/4000-level courses:

Art History 3240 - Canadian Art History to 1960

Art History 3245 - Canadian Art History from 1960 to the Present

Economics 3210 - Natural Resource Economics

Economics 4300 - Agricultural Policy II

English 3001 - Canadian Poetry

English 3002 - Contemporary Canadian Drama

English 3008 - Canadian Literature, 1867 - 1914

English 3810 - Contemporary Canadian Literature

English 4000 - Seminars in Canadian and Post-Colonial Literature (Series)

French 3001 - Advanced Language I

French 3200 - Culture and Civilization II (Series)

French 3600 - Literary Genres (Series)

French 4001 - Advanced Language II

French 4002 - Advanced Studies in Language (Series)

French 4600 - Seminar in Literature (Series)

History 3703 - History of Western Canada

History 3707 - Canada Since 1939

History 4070 - Seminars in Canadian History (Series)

Indigenous Studies 3300 - Canadian Indigenous Art History and Theory

Indigenous Studies 3500 - Indigenous Treaties in an International Context

Indigenous Studies 3700 - Indigenous Health

Indigenous Studies 4400 - Indigenous Peoples and the Criminal Justice System

Indigenous Studies 4700 - The Metis

Political Science 3120 - Canadian Foreign Policy

Political Science 3221 - The Politics of Canadian Federalism

Political Science 3241 - Canadian Constitutional Law: Federalism and First Nations

Political Science 3250 - Alberta Politics and Government

Political Science 3260 - Canadian Public Policy

Political Science 3280 - Canadian Political Behaviour

Political Science 3400 - Public Administration

Notes

Selected Applied Studies, Independent Studies, Topics courses, and offerings in the English 4000, French 3200, French 3600, French 4002, and French 4600 Series may be counted toward the Options courses in the major provided (1) they are clearly related to Canadian Studies and (2) they are approved by the Coordinator of Canadian Studies.

Many of the Options courses require prerequisites, thus students should choose courses with this in mind.

The required Independent Study course should involve more than one discipline and must be approved by the Coordinator of Canadian Studies.

l.Chemistry (B.Sc.)

Department: Chemistry and Biochemistry

Chemistry is the central science of matter, dealing with the 118 known elements from which everything is made. It studies the transformations and properties of all substances - natural and synthetic. Chemistry students develop a strong background in theory and practice and acquire extensive laboratory skills. Chemistry is an experimental science, and students are strongly encouraged to perform original research in partial fulfillment of the degree requirements. The Major in Chemistry leads to professional certification (P.Chem.), and graduates are prepared for careers in industry or the public sector. The degree is also suitable for advanced study in chemistry and can be used to prepare for other professional programs (Dentistry, Medicine, or Veterinary Medicine).

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 24

Required courses:

Biochemistry 2000 - Introductory Biochemistry

Biology 1010 - Cellular Basis of Life

Chemistry 1000 - General Chemistry I

Chemistry 2000 - General Chemistry II

Chemistry 2410 - Analytical Chemistry I

Chemistry 2500 - Organic Chemistry I

Chemistry 2600 - Organic Chemistry II

Chemistry 2740 - Physical Chemistry I

Chemistry 3250 - Contemporary Chemistry

Chemistry 3410 - Analytical Chemistry II

Chemistry 3730 - Physical Chemistry II

Chemistry 3830 - Inorganic Chemistry I

Chemistry 3840 - Inorganic Chemistry II

Mathematics 1410 - Elementary Linear Algebra

Physics 2000 - Introduction to Physics II

One of:

Mathematics 1560 - Calculus I

Mathematics 1565 - Accelerated Calculus I (recommended)

One of:

Mathematics 2560 - Calculus II

Mathematics 2565 - Accelerated Calculus II (recommended)

One of:

Physics 1000 - Introduction to Physics I (recommended)

Physics 1050 - Introduction to Biophysics

1Engineering 2060 - Engineering Mechanics

2Two offerings (6.0 credit hours) chosen from the following list:

Chemistry 4000 - Advanced Chemistry (Series)
Chemistry 4010 - Advanced Chemistry with Laboratory (Series)

2Four additional courses (12.0 credit hours) in Chemistry or Biochemistry chosen from the following list:

Additional offerings of Chemistry 4000 - Advanced Chemistry (Series)
Additional offerings of Chemistry 4010 - Advanced Chemistry with Laboratory (Series)
Biochemistry 3100 - Proteins, Enzymes and Nucleic Acids
Biochemistry 3300 - Bioenergetics and Metabolism
Chemistry 3990 - Independent Study
Chemistry 4990 - Independent Study
Chemistry 4995 - Undergraduate Thesis (6.0 credit hours)

Notes

1Has prerequisites: Engineering 2000 and Mathematics 1565.

2A minimum of two of the six selected courses must be lab-based. Offerings in the Chemistry 4000 Series do not meet this requirement. Chemistry 3990 and 4990 may meet this requirement if the Independent Study includes laboratory work.

This program has been accredited by the Canadian Society for Chemistry (CSC), which is the national organization representing chemists, and is acceptable for membership in the Association of the Chemical Profession of Alberta (ACPA). Students who complete a B.Sc. degree with the major in Chemistry outlined above will have a degree accredited by the CSC.

Those who plan to pursue graduate studies in Chemistry should take more than the minimum of 18 courses in Chemistry or Biochemistry and should obtain advice on their program from the department. Students can get credit for participating in original research as part of their studies, especially if preparing for advanced Chemistry degrees.

Chemistry courses are organized in sequences and must be taken in the proper order. In addition, several of the 3000-level courses are offered only in alternate years. Students at an early stage of their studies are advised to seek help in planning their programs from the Department Advisor or from any faculty member in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry.

m.Computer Science (B.Sc.)

Department: Mathematics and Computer Science

Computer Science is the study of algorithms and data structures and their applications in designing new and efficient solutions to industrial, technological, environmental or social problems. The program is designed to enable students to gain both theoretical knowledge and practical experience, and includes access to state-of-the-art hardware and software.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 18

Required courses:

Computer Science 1620 - Fundamentals of Programming I

Computer Science 1820 - Discrete Structures

Computer Science 2610 - Introduction to Digital Systems

Computer Science 2620 - Fundamentals of Programming II

Computer Science 2720 - Practical Software Development

Computer Science 3615 - Computer Architecture

Computer Science 3620 - Data Structures and Algorithms

Computer Science 3740 - Programming Languages

Mathematics 2000 - Mathematical Concepts

One of:

Mathematics 1410 - Elementary Linear Algebra

Mathematics 1510 - Calculus for Management and Social Sciences

Mathematics 1560 - Calculus I

Mathematics 1565 - Accelerated Calculus I

Statistics 1770 - Introduction to Probability and Statistics

1Six additional courses (18.0 credit hours) in Computer Science at the 3000/4000 level

Two courses (6.0 credit hours) in Computer Science at the 4000 level, excluding Computer Science 4850 (Topics), Computer Science 4980 (Applied Studies), and Computer Science 4990 (Independent Study)

Notes

1One of the six additional 3000/4000-level courses may be replaced by a course from the following list:
Physics 3900 - Intermediate Experimental Physics (Series) (Digital Electronics)
Any 3000/4000-level Mathematics course

It is strongly recommended that Computer Science majors include additional Mathematics courses in their program. Students intending to take Physics 3900 should plan carefully to include the appropriate Mathematics and Physics prerequisites in their programs.

Some senior courses are scheduled for alternate years. Since these courses are frequently sequential and dependent upon adequate preparation, students are urged to seek advice before the end of their third term in planning a major and selecting courses.

It is strongly recommended that a student attain a grade of 'C' or higher in any course used to satisfy prerequisites for courses in Computer Science and Mathematics.

n.Computer Science and Geographical Information Science (B.Sc.)

Departments: Geography and Environment, and Mathematics and Computer Science

Geographical Information Science (GIS) involves the use and analysis of digital maps, databases, models and mobile applications, as well as navigation and spatial integration tools. Major GIS application areas include remote sensing, geographical information systems, computer graphics, image processing and mapping and spatial modelling. These rely on advanced computer science algorithms and software development, platform integration, hardware design and operating system principles. The major provides applied training coupled with a solid theoretical and developmental foundation. Graduates have the choice of a wide range of employment opportunities that involve applications, development or both.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 22

Required courses:

Computer Science 1620 - Fundamentals of Programming I

Computer Science 1820 - Discrete Structures

Computer Science 2620 - Fundamentals of Programming II

Computer Science 2720 - Practical Software Development

Computer Science 3620 - Data Structures and Algorithms

Computer Science 3660 - Introduction to Database Systems

Computer Science 3710 - Computer Graphics

Computer Science 4660 - Database Management Systems

Geography 1000 - Introduction to Physical Geography

Geography 1200 - Introduction to Human Geography

Geography 2700 - Geographical Data and Analysis

Geography 2735 - Introduction to Geographical Information Science

Geography 3720 - Remote Sensing

Geography 3740 - Geographical Information Systems

Geography 4725 - Advanced Remote Sensing

Geography 4740 - Advanced Geographical Information Systems

One of:

Geography 4400 - Advanced Hydrology

Geography 4700 - Advanced Digital Mapping

Geography 4710 - Remote Sensing Field Techniques

Geography 4751 - Spatial Modelling

Geography 4753 - Seminar in Remote Sensing

Four of:

Any of the courses listed above but not already selected as required courses

Computer Science 2610 - Introduction to Digital Systems

Computer Science 3720 - Introduction to Software Engineering

1Computer Science 3740 - Programming Languages

Computer Science 3750 - Artificial Intelligence

Computer Science 3770 - Human-Computer Interaction

Computer Science 3780 - Data Communications and Networking

Geography 2030 - Geomorphology

Geography 2300 - Weather and Climate

Geography 3400 - Hydrology

Geography 3700 - Mapping in the Cloud

Geography 3710 - Field Techniques in the Earth Sciences

Geography 3750 - GIS Applications in Human Geography

Geography 4730 - Spatial Statistics

2Statistics 2780 - Statistical Inference

One course (3.0 credit hours) in Computer Science at the 4000 level, excluding Computer Science 4850 (Topics), Computer Science 4980 (Applied Studies), and Computer Science 4990 (Independent Study)

Notes

1Prerequisite required: Mathematics 2000.

2Prerequisite required: Statistics 1770.

o.Dramatic Arts (B.A.)

The major in Dramatic Arts for the B.A. is administered by the Faculty of Fine Arts. Please refer to the Faculty of Fine Arts section for more information on major requirements.

p.Economics (B.A.)

Department: Economics

Economics is the study of the allocation of scarce resources by societies to meet individual and social wants. The major includes a number of courses in microeconomics and macroeconomics. These provide the theoretical framework within which contemporary issues, such as pollution, non-renewable natural resources, free trade, agricultural subsidies, interest rates, government deficits, unemployment, inflation, poverty and third world development can be analyzed and appropriate policies can be recommended.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 14

Required courses:

Economics 1010 - Introduction to Microeconomics

Economics 1012 - Introduction to Macroeconomics

Economics 2750 - Quantitative Methods in Economics

Economics 2900 - Economics and Business Statistics

Economics 3010 - Intermediate Microeconomic Theory

Economics 3012 - Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory

Economics 3950 - Econometrics I

Statistics 1770 - Introduction to Probability and Statistics

Three courses (9.0 credit hours) in Economics at the 4000 level

Three additional courses (9.0 credit hours) in Economics

Notes

Please note that credit will not be granted for both Economics 2900 and Statistics 2780.

It is recommended that Economics majors include courses in Mathematics, especially courses in Calculus, as part of their overall programs.

It is also strongly recommended that students who are considering graduate studies in Economics include in their programs as many 4000-level courses as possible, and in particular the following courses:

Economics 4010 - Advanced Microeconomic Theory
Economics 4012 - Advanced Macroeconomic Theory
Economics 4150 - Mathematical Economics

q.English (B.A.)

Department: English

English is the study of the properties and powers of the English language and literature as the fundamental means by which we communicate our values, ideals and vision. Courses in the fundamentals of the three main literary genres of poetry, prose and drama prepare students for the close study of major works and periods of literature from the British, American, Canadian, and post-Colonial traditions. In addition, the curriculum includes a variety of special courses in rhetoric, the history of language, literary theory, gender, children's literature and creative writing. At the senior level, courses concentrate on specific topics such as particular authors and are conducted in small seminar classes which stimulate open and intensive discussion between students and instructor.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 13

Required courses:

English 1900 - Introduction to Language and Literature

Two of (Literary Surveys):

English 2000 - Survey of Canadian Literature

English 2400 - Survey of English Literature I

English 2450 - Survey of English Literature II

English 2500 - Survey of American Literature I

English 2550 - Survey of American Literature II

English 2610 - Survey of Children's Literature

English 2625 - Survey of World Literature

English 2700 - Surveys of Literature (Series)

Two of (Genres, Approaches and Themes):

English 2100 - Poetry

English 2200 - Drama

English 2300 - Prose Fiction

English 2605/Indigenous Studies 2605 - Introduction to Indigenous Literature

English 2720 - Approaches to Literature (Series)

English 2800 - Rhetoric

English 2810 - Grammar

Six courses (18.0 credit hours) in English at the 3000/4000 level chosen from the subfield lists below

Two courses (6.0 credit hours) in English at the 4000 level chosen from the subfield lists below

For the above 3000/4000-level requirements, students must draw courses from at least five of the following subfield lists:

1.Theory, Language and Creative Writing

English 3010 - Literary Theory
English 3060 - Gender and Literature
English 3070 - Imperialism and Nationalism in Children's Literature
English 3800 - Creative Writing
English 3901 - History of the English Language

2.Old and Middle English

English 3401 - Medieval Literature
English 3450 - Old English
English 3601 - Chaucer

3.Renaissance

English 3201 - Elizabethan and Jacobean Drama
English 3410 - 17th-Century Literature
English 3602 - Shakespeare

4.Eighteenth Century and Romantic

English 3301 - Rise of the Novel
English 3310 - Restoration and 18th-Century Literature
English 3350 - Romanticism

5.Nineteenth Century

English 3302 - 19th-Century British Novel
English 3500 - Victorian Literature

6.Twentieth Century and Contemporary

English 3610 - Modernism
English 3620 - Modern Drama
English 3630 - Modern Novel
English 3650 - Contemporary Literature
English 3660 - Contemporary Drama

7.Canadian and Post-Colonial

English 3001 - Canadian Poetry
English 3002 - Contemporary Canadian Drama
English 3008 - Canadian Literature, 1867 - 1914
English 3605/Indigenous Studies 3605 - Indigenous Literature - Advanced
English 3810 - Contemporary Canadian Literature
English 3860 - Post-Colonial Literature
English 4000 - Seminars in Canadian and Post-Colonial Literature (Series)

Notes

Offerings in the English 3700, English 4400, and English 4600 series will be assigned to one of the subfield lists at the time of scheduling. Please refer to the current term timetable.

Applied Studies, Independent Studies, and courses not listed under the seven subfields are not counted as part of the 13-course minimum for the major; they are strongly encouraged for students taking courses beyond this minimum, however.

Fourth-year English majors are especially encouraged to become involved in seminars and Independent Studies at the 4000 level. Suggestions for unique and imaginative projects and approaches to fourth-year studies are welcomed by the Department.

r.Environmental Science (B.Sc.)

Departments: Biological Sciences, and Geography and Environment

Environmental Science focuses on understanding the Earth's natural systems and how we, as humans, interact with them. Environmental scientists study the impact of these interactions on the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere using an interdisciplinary approach. They provide us with the information we need to address some of the most pressing issues facing humanity today - like climate change. The Environmental Science program will provide students with the natural and physical science background needed to understand a multitude of environmental systems, as well as the broad perspective required to appreciate the role of humanity in global environmental change.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 24

Required courses:

Biology 1010 - Cellular Basis of Life

Biology 1020 - Diversity of Life

Biology 2000 - Principles of Genetics

Biology 2200 - Principles of Ecology

Biology 3300 - Evolution

Chemistry 1000 - General Chemistry I

Chemistry 2000 - General Chemistry II

Environmental Science 2000 - Fundamentals of Environmental Science

Environmental Science 4000 - Selected Studies in Environmental Science II (Series)

Geography 1000 - Introduction to Physical Geography

Geography 2030 - Geomorphology

Geography 2300 - Weather and Climate

Geography 2735 - Introduction to Geographical Information Science

One of:

Biology 2150 - Biostatistics

Geography 2700 - Geographical Data and Analysis

One of:

Chemistry 2410 - Analytical Chemistry I

Chemistry 2500 - Organic Chemistry I

One of:

Mathematics 1410 - Elementary Linear Algebra

Mathematics 1560 - Calculus I

Mathematics 1565 - Accelerated Calculus I

One of:

Physics 1000 - Introduction to Physics I

Physics 1050 - Introduction to Biophysics

Three of:

Geography 2065 - Physical Geology

Geography 2090 - Biogeography

Geography 3060 - Glaciology and Glacial Geomorphology

Geography 3080 - Soils

Geography 3300 - Microclimatology

Geography 3400 - Hydrology

Geography 3720 - Remote Sensing

Geography 3740 - Geographical Information Systems

Geography 4400 - Advanced Hydrology

Geography 4730 - Spatial Statistics

Three of (at least two must be offered with a lab):

Biology 3460 - Plant Physiology

Biology 3520 - Invertebrate Zoology

Biology 3530 - Vertebrate Zoology

Biology 3560 - Integrative Plant Biology

Biology 3630 - Field Biology

Biology 3660 - Field Botany

Biology 3700 - Ecosystem Ecology

Biology 3710 - Population Biology

Biology 3720 - Community Ecology

Biology 4605 - Conservation Biology

Biology 4700 - Molecular Ecology

Biology 4710 - Evolutionary and Ecological Modelling

Biology 4740 - Behavioural Ecology

Biology 4800 - Biology of Parasitism

Biology 4840 - Limnology

One of:

Biology 3630 - Field Biology

Biology 3660 - Field Botany

Geography 3710 - Field Techniques in the Earth Sciences

1Geography 3780 - Field Research in Geography

Geography 3792 - Field Excursion in Physical Geography (Series)

2An approved field course

Technical Studies Term (five courses)

Students are required to complete a term of study at Lethbridge College, consisting of five courses from the College's Environmental Science program. The Technical Studies term counts as the equivalent of 15.0 credit hours at the University of Lethbridge (three unspecified 2000-level and two unspecified 3000-level Environmental Science courses).

The Technical Studies term should be taken after at least 20 university courses have been completed and prior to registration in the final 10 courses for the degree.

Students must have the college course selection approved by the Coordinator of Environmental Science. Students are not permitted to complete any courses in addition to the approved Lethbridge College courses during the Technical Studies term. Further details are available from the Coordinator.

Notes

1Prerequisite required: Geography 1200.

2Must be approved by the Coordinator of Environmental Science.

Students may not receive credit for courses at the University of Lethbridge for which close equivalents have been taken at Lethbridge College, and vice versa. Students must ensure that their course selection has been approved by the Coordinator of Environmental Science.

Concentration: Geographical Information Science (optional)

Environmental Science majors in the B.Sc. degree program may declare a Concentration in Geographical Information Science.

Required Courses:

Computer Science 1620 - Fundamentals of Programming I

Geography 3720 - Remote Sensing

Geography 3740 - Geographical Information Systems

Geography 4725 - Advanced Remote Sensing

Geography 4740 - Advanced Geographical Information Systems

Notes:

An alternate Geography course may be counted toward the concentration requirements provided (1) it is clearly related to Geographical Information Science and (2) it is approved by the Chair of the Department of Geography.

Students may not double count courses required for the Concentration in Geographical Information Science in fulfilling requirements for the Major in Environmental Science.

For students who complete all the requirements, the Concentration in Geographical Information Science will be acknowledged on the official academic transcript.

s.French (B.A.)

Department: Modern Languages and Linguistics

French is the study - in French - of the language, literature, and culture of the francophone world. Upper-level students may choose to focus on language and linguistics, language and literature, or language and culture. In the course of their studies, students are encouraged to take French courses at a francophone university in Canada or abroad.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 16

Required courses:

One of the following streams (a. or b.):

a. Non-Immersion Stream (for students who have completed French 30, French 31, or equivalent)

French 2010 - Intermediate Language I

French 2020 - Intermediate Language II

b. Immersion Stream (for students who have completed French Language Arts 30, Français 30, or equivalent)

French 2001 - Intermediate Language for Immersion Graduates

One additional course in French

French 2250 - French Immersion

French 2300 - Introduction to Modern Literature and Literary Analysis

French 2700 - Communication ecrite et orale

French 3001 - Advanced Language I

French 3100 - Survey of Pre-Revolutionary French Literature

French 3600 - Literary Genres (Series)

French 4001 - Advanced Language II

One of:

French 4002 - Advanced Studies in Language (Series)

French 4600 - Seminar in Literature (Series)

Two additional courses (6.0 credit hours) in French at the 3000/4000 level

Four additional courses (12.0 credit hours) in French

Notes

Students may not count French 1000 (Beginners' French I) among the minimum requirements for the major.

Students registering in introductory language courses must complete the Student Information Form to determine whether they are registered in the appropriate course. Students may be asked to write the Student Placement Test. Advanced placement may be granted to students who have acquired language skills outside of a formal academic environment. Please refer to www.ulethbridge.ca/artsci/modern-languages/department-modern-languages-placement-policy for more information.

Students who have not completed French 30 or French 31 (or equivalent) should begin their program with French 1000 and/or French 1100 depending on placement test results.

French 2250 and the French Visiting Student Program are required. Please refer to www.ulethbridge.ca/artsci/modern-languages/visiting-student-programs-vsp for information on the Visiting Student Program.

It is strongly recommended that a student attain a grade of 'C' or higher in any course used to satisfy prerequisites for courses in French. For more information see an academic advisor in the Student Program Services Office.

t.French/Spanish (B.A.)

Department: Modern Languages and Linguistics

The French/Spanish major combines a core of French courses with an equal number of courses in Spanish. Students majoring in French and Spanish will study the language, literature and culture of both the francophone and Spanish worlds in their respective languages. Upper-level French students may choose to focus on language and linguistics, language and literature, or language and culture. Upper-level Spanish students will study the language and literature of Spain and Latin America. In the course of their studies, students are encouraged to take university classes in francophone Canada or abroad in countries where French or Spanish are national languages.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 16

Required courses:

French 2300 - Introduction to Modern Literature and Literary Analysis

French 3001 - Advanced Language I

Spanish 2300 - Introduction to Hispanic Literature and Literary Analysis

One of:

Spanish 3001 - Advanced Language

Spanish 3002 - Spanish for Professional Contexts

Four courses (12.0 credit hours) in French at the 3000/4000 level

Three courses (9.0 credit hours) in Spanish at the 3000/4000 level

Two additional courses (6.0 credit hours) in French

Three additional courses (9.0 credit hours) in Spanish

Notes

Students may not count either French 1000 (Beginners' French I) or Spanish 1000 (Beginners' Spanish I) among the minimum requirements for the major.

Students may replace one course in Spanish with one course in Hispanic Studies.

Students registering in introductory language courses must complete the Student Information Form to determine whether they are registered in the appropriate course. Students may be asked to write the Student Placement Test. Advanced placement may be granted to students who have acquired language skills outside of a formal academic environment. Please refer to www.ulethbridge.ca/artsci/modern-languages/department-modern-languages-placement-policy for more information.

It is recommended that students majoring in French/Spanish complete either the French or Spanish Visiting Student Program. Please refer to www.ulethbridge.ca/artsci/modern-languages/visiting-student-programs-vsp for information on the Visiting Student Program.

It is strongly recommended that a student attain a grade of 'C' or higher in any course used to satisfy prerequisites for courses in French and Spanish. For more information see an academic advisor in the Student Program Services Office.

u.General Major in the Humanities (B.A.)

The General Major in the Humanities is a broad major that supports an ideal of liberal education.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 20

Required courses:

Five courses (15.0 credit hours) in each of three disciplinary streams chosen from the following list:

English - all courses
Fine Arts - all courses in Art, Art History, Cinema, Drama, Museum Studies, Music, Music Studio, and New Media
One of French, Japanese, or Spanish
Classical Languages 1 - all courses in Greek, Hebrew, and Latin
History - all courses
Indigenous Studies - all courses (including courses in Blackfoot and Cree)
Linguistics - all courses designated Humanities
Philosophy - all courses designated Humanities
Religious Studies - all courses

Four additional courses (12.0 credit hours) chosen from any of the Humanities disciplinary streams listed above

One course (3.0 credit hours) in a language other than English

Of the 20 courses (60.0 credit hours) required in the major, seven courses (21.0 credit hours) must be at the 3000/4000 level.

Notes

1Classical language courses (Greek, Hebrew, and Latin) may not be offered each term.

To determine if a given course in a disciplinary stream has a Humanities designation, see List I: Fine Arts and Humanities Courses.

If one of the disciplinary streams selected is a language discipline, students may use a course in a different language or a sixth course in the chosen stream to meet the language requirement.

v.General Major in the Sciences (B.Sc.)

The General Major in the Sciences is a broad major that supports an ideal of liberal education.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 20

Required courses:

Five courses (15.0 credit hours) in each of three disciplinary streams chosen from the following list:

Archaeology - all courses designated Science
Biological Sciences - all Biology courses
Chemistry - all courses (including courses in Biochemistry)
Computer Science - all courses
Geography - all courses designated Science
Kinesiology - all courses designated Science (neither Kinesiology 1160 nor Kinesiology 1161 may be included)
Mathematics - all courses (including courses in Statistics)
Neuroscience - all courses
Physics - all courses (including courses in Astronomy and Engineering)
Psychology - all courses designated Science

Four additional courses (12.0 credit hours) chosen from any of the Science disciplinary streams listed above

One of (Science in Human Affairs):

Biochemistry 2300 - Elements of Human Nutrition

Biology 2500 - Biology and Society

Environmental Science 2000 - Fundamentals of Environmental Science

Philosophy 2233 - Philosophy and the World View of Science: Earth and Life Sciences

Philosophy 2234 - Philosophy and the World View of Science: Space, Time and Matter

Philosophy 3402 - Biomedical Ethics

Physics 2020 - The Physics of Everyday Life

Of the 20 courses (60.0 credit hours) required in the major, seven courses (21.0 credit hours) must be at the 3000/4000 level.

Notes

To determine if a given course in a disciplinary stream has a Science designation, see List III: Science Courses.

Some of the Science in Human Affairs courses have prerequisites which may or may not be included in the major.

w.General Major in the Social Sciences (B.A.)

The General Major in the Social Sciences is a broad major that supports an ideal of liberal education.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 20

Required courses:

Five courses (15.0 credit hours) in each of three disciplinary streams chosen from the following list:

Anthropology - all courses
Archaeology - all courses designated Social Science
Economics - all courses designated Social Science
Geography - all courses designated Social Science
History - all courses
Indigenous Studies - all courses (courses in Blackfoot and Cree may not be included)
Kinesiology - all courses designated Social Science (Physical Activity courses may not be included)
Political Science - all courses designated Social Science
Psychology - all courses designated Social Science
Sociology - all courses
Women and Gender Studies - all courses designated Social Science

Four additional courses (12.0 credit hours) chosen from any of the Social Sciences disciplinary streams listed above

One of (Quantitative Methods):

Economics 2900 - Economics and Business Statistics

Geography 2700 - Geographical Data and Analysis

Psychology 2030 - Methods and Statistics B

Sociology 2130 - Quantitative Research Practice

Statistics 2780 - Statistical Inference

Of the 20 courses (60.0 credit hours) required in the major, seven courses (21.0 credit hours) must be at the 3000/4000 level.

Notes

To determine if a given course in a disciplinary stream has a Social Science designation, see List II: Social Science Courses.

The Quantitative Methods courses have prerequisites which may or may not be included in the major.

x.Geography (B.A.)

Department: Geography and Environment

Geography involves the study of human activities and natural systems with a focus on spatial relationships and the nature of places. The discipline stresses integration and synthesis, so students graduating with a major in Geography possess a firm understanding of environmental stewardship in the context of complex interrelationships between nature and humankind. Geography students also learn many practical skills and techniques essential to a diverse range of employment opportunities.

After completing a set of core foundational courses, students will select additional upper-level courses which focus on human-related systems and phenomena. Students with an interest in geographical techniques such as cartography, geographical information systems (GIS), or remote sensing can pursue those interests either by choosing such courses as options or by completing a specified set of courses to satisfy the Concentration in Geographical Information Science.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 19

Required courses:

Archaeology 1000 - Introduction to Archaeology

Environmental Science 2000 - Fundamentals of Environmental Science

Geography 1000 - Introduction to Physical Geography

Geography 1200 - Introduction to Human Geography

Geography 2210 - Spatial Organization of Economic Activity

Geography 2535 - Introduction to Planning

Geography 2700 - Geographical Data and Analysis

Geography 2735 - Introduction to Geographical Information Science

Geography 3075 - Environmental Resources Management

Geography 3255 - Qualitative Research Methods

Geography 4500 - Contemporary Issues and Problems in Planning (Series)

Geography 4900 - Seminar in Geographic Thought

One of:

Geography 2000 - World Regional Geography

Geography 2600 - Canada

One of:

Geography 2030 - Geomorphology

Geography 2090 - Biogeography

Geography 2300 - Weather and Climate

Three of:

Geography 3210 - Food Systems Analysis

Geography 3225/International Management 3225 - Industrial Location and Globalization of Enterprise

Geography 3230 - Urban Social Geography

Geography 3245 - Urbanization in Developing Countries

Geography 3333/Women and Gender Studies 3333 - Geography of Borders and Displacement

Geography 3605 - The Changing Geography of China

One of:

Geography 3700 - Mapping in the Cloud

Geography 3740 - Geographical Information Systems

One additional course (3.0 credit hours) in Geography at the 3000/4000 level

Concentration: Geographical Information Science (optional)

Geography majors in the B.A. degree program may declare a Concentration in Geographical Information Science.

Required courses:

Computer Science 1620 - Fundamentals of Programming I

Geography 3720 - Remote Sensing

Geography 3740 - Geographical Information Systems

Geography 4725 - Advanced Remote Sensing

Geography 4740 - Advanced Geographical Information Systems

Notes

An alternate Geography course may be counted toward the concentration requirements provided (1) it is clearly related to Geographical Information Science and (2) it is approved by the Chair of the Department of Geography.

Students may not double count courses required for the Concentration in Geographical Information Science in fulfilling requirements for the major in Geography.

For students who complete all requirements, the Concentration in Geographical Information Science will be acknowledged on the official transcript.

y.Geography (B.Sc.)

Department: Geography and Environment

Geography involves the study of human activities and natural systems with a focus on spatial relationships and the nature of places. The discipline stresses integration and synthesis, so students graduating with a major in Geography possess a firm understanding of environmental stewardship in the context of complex interrelationships between nature and humankind. Geography students also learn many practical skills and techniques essential to a diverse range of employment opportunities.

After completing a set of core foundational courses, students will select additional upper-level courses dealing with physical dimensions of natural systems. Students with an interest in geographical techniques such as cartography, geographical information systems (GIS), or remote sensing can pursue those interests either by choosing such courses as options or by completing a specified set of courses to satisfy the Concentration in Geographical Information Science.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 19

Required courses:

Archaeology 1000 - Introduction to Archaeology

Environmental Science 2000 - Fundamentals of Environmental Science

Geography 1000 - Introduction to Physical Geography

Geography 1200 - Introduction to Human Geography

Geography 2700 - Geographical Data and Analysis

Geography 2735 - Introduction to Geographical Information Science

Two of (Human Geography):

Geography 2000 - World Regional Geography

Geography 2210 - Spatial Organization of Economic Activity

Geography 2600 - Canada

Geography 3255 - Qualitative Research Methods

Geography 3333/Women and Gender Studies 3333 - Geography of Borders and Displacement

Three of (Physical Geography):

Geography 2030 - Geomorphology

Geography 2065 - Physical Geology

Geography 2090 - Biogeography

Geography 2300 - Weather and Climate

One of (Field Course):

Archaeology 3300 - Archaeological Field Work (Series)

Archaeology 3700 - Geoarchaeology and Landscape Analysis

Geography 3710 - Field Techniques in the Earth Sciences

Geography 3780 - Field Research in Geography

Geography 4710 - Remote Sensing Field Techniques

One of (Spatial Science):

Geography 3700 - Mapping in the Cloud

Geography 3720 - Remote Sensing

Geography 3740 - Geographical Information Systems

One of:

Geography 4700 - Advanced Digital Mapping

Geography 4710 - Remote Sensing Field Techniques

Geography 4725 - Advanced Remote Sensing

Geography 4740 - Advanced Geographical Information Systems

Geography 4753 - Seminar in Remote Sensing

Remote Sensing 4650 - Physics of Remote Sensing

One of:

Geography 4900 - Seminar in Geographic Thought

One course (3.0 credit hours) in Geography at the 4000 level with a Science designation

One of:

Mathematics 1410 - Elementary Linear Algebra

Mathematics 1560 - Calculus I

Mathematics 1565 - Accelerated Calculus I

Statistics 1770 - Introduction to Probability and Statistics

Three additional courses (9.0 credit hours) in Geography at the 3000 or 4000 level with a Science designation

Notes

To determine if a given course in Geography has a Science designation, see List III: Science Courses.

Concentration: Geographical Information Science (optional)

Geography majors in the B.Sc. degree program may declare a Concentration in Geographical Information Science.

Required Courses:

Computer Science 1620 - Fundamentals of Programming I

Geography 3720 - Remote Sensing

Geography 3740 - Geographical Information Systems

Geography 4725 - Advanced Remote Sensing

Geography 4740 - Advanced Geographical Information Systems

Notes:

An alternate Geography course may be counted toward the concentration requirements provided (1) it is clearly related to Geographical Information Science and (2) it is approved by the Chair of the Department of Geography.

Students may not double count Geography courses required for the Concentration in Geographical Information Science in fulfilling requirements for the major in Geography.

For students who complete all requirements, the Concentration in Geographical Information Science will be acknowledged on the official academic transcript.

Please note that the Concentration in Geographical Information Science is specifically excluded from combined degrees programs.

z.History (B.A.)

Department: History

History is a discipline that examines evidence to reconstruct and understand the past. It is our collective memory and our possible future. Encompassing a wide range of human events and historical conditions, history necessarily complements other disciplines in the University. The program offers instruction in aspects of the social, economic, political, and cultural histories of societies ranging from ancient Greece to modern-day Japan. Students pursuing a major in History will develop strong skills in critical reading, writing, and analysis.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 14

Required courses:

History 2222 - History in Practice

One of:

History 1000 - The Western World

History 1200 - World History

Two of (European History):

History 2001 - Main Themes in Ancient History

History 2100 - Main Themes in Medieval European History

History 2102 - Early Modern Europe - 1500-1750

History 2150 - The Politics of Europe - 1750-1914

History 2500 - Themes in British Social and Political History

Two of (North American History):

History 2600 - Main Themes in the History of the United States

History 2710 - Canada to 1867

History 2720 - Canada Since 1867

One of (Global and Thematic History):

History 2290 - Main Themes in East Asian History

History 2300 - Latin America

History 2800/Women and Gender Studies 2800 - History of Women

Religious Studies 2500 - Christianity

1Five courses (15.0 credit hours) in History at the 3000/4000 level

Two courses (6.0 credit hours) in History at the 4000 level, excluding History 4980 (Applied Studies), History 4990 (Independent Study), and History 4995 (Undergraduate Thesis)

Notes

1Economics 3170 (Economic History of Canada) may be used in place of one History course at the 3000 level.

The Department strongly advises students intending to pursue graduate studies to take History 4990 (Independent Study) or History 4995 (Undergraduate Thesis). History majors should meet with the Department Advisor once a term in order to ensure that an appropriate program is being planned.

aa.Indigenous Studies (B.A.)

Department: Indigenous Studies

The Indigenous Studies program was developed and formalized by representatives of southern Alberta's Native communities and the University of Lethbridge. The major in Indigenous Studies is multidisciplinary and comprehensive in nature and consists of courses in First Nations' culture, history, art, law, politics, language, literature and contemporary themes, all taught from a First Nations' perspective. It aims to foster the study of these various dynamics of North American Indigenous culture and to further a deeper awareness of First Nations' themes and perspectives.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 16

Required courses:

Indigenous Studies 1000 - Introduction to Indigenous Studies I: Canadian Contexts

Indigenous Studies 1010 - Introduction to Indigenous Studies II: Global Perspectives

Indigenous Studies 1100/Linguistics 1100 - Language and Culture in Indigenous America

One course (3.0 credit hours) in Blackfoot or Cree

One of (Language and Linguistics):

Indigenous Studies 2750/Linguistics 2750 - Endangered Languages

Blackfoot 2210 - Structure of the Blackfoot Language

Cree 2210 - Structure of the Plains Cree Language

One of (Art and Literature):

Indigenous Studies 2300 - North American Indigenous Art History and Theory

Indigenous Studies 2350/Art 2350 - Indigenous Art Studio I

Indigenous Studies 2605/English 2605 - Introduction to Indigenous Literature

One of (Culture and History)

Indigenous Studies 2400 - Comparative Traditional Indigenous Economies

Indigenous Studies 2455 - Social Organization: Kinship

Indigenous Studies 2500 - Indigenous Histories of Canada

Indigenous Studies 2550 - Indigenous Histories of the United States

Indigenous Studies 3220 - Oral Histories/Life Stories

Indigenous Studies 3860 - Seminar in Indigenous North American Histories, Archaeologies, and Cultures (Series)

One of (Law and Politics)

Indigenous Studies 2100 - Indigenous Peoples and Law

Indigenous Studies 3500 - Indigenous Treaties in an International Context

Indigenous Studies 3550 - Settler Colonial Policies and Indigenous Sovereignties

One of (Contemporary Themes)

Indigenous Studies 2360 - Indigenous Popular Cultures

Indigenous Studies 2700 - Indigenous Women

Indigenous Studies 3700 - Indigenous Health

Four courses (12.0 credit hours) in Indigenous Studies at the 3000/4000 level

One course (3.0 credit hours) in Indigenous Studies at the 4000 level

Two additional courses (6.0 credit hours) in Indigenous Studies, Blackfoot, or Cree

ab.Kinesiology (B.A.)

Department: Kinesiology and Physical Education

Kinesiology is the study of human movement from a multidisciplinary perspective. Students who enrol in the Kinesiology major for the B.A. will take a broad range of theoretical courses in the social science and humanities dimensions of the discipline. Students are also required to complete physical activity courses as part of their program. The Kinesiology major for the B.A. offers students the opportunity to investigate those psychological, social, cultural, economic, and political influences that shape and limit opportunities for activity across the lifespan as well as to study the tremendous potential of sport and leisure activities to bring pleasure and meaning to individuals and community.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 19

Required courses:

Kinesiology 1000 - Wellness and Physical Activity

Kinesiology 2110 - Biophysical Perspectives

Kinesiology 2130 - Humanities Perspectives

Kinesiology 2140 - Psychological Perspectives

Kinesiology 2150 - Sociological Perspectives

Kinesiology 2160 - Management Perspectives

Kinesiology 2200 - Research Methodologies

Kinesiology 2600 - Functional Human Anatomy

Five courses (15.0 credit hours) in Kinesiology at the 3000/4000 level with a Humanities or Social Science designation, excluding Kinesiology 3980 and Kinesiology 4980 (Applied Studies)

Three courses (9.0 credit hours) in Kinesiology at the 4000 level with a Humanities or Social Science designation, excluding Kinesiology 4980 (Applied Studies)

Three courses (9.0 credit hours) in Physical Activity at the 3000 level

Notes

To determine if a given course in Kinesiology has a Humanities or Social Science designation, see List I: Fine Arts and Humanities Courses and List II: Social Science Courses.

No more than two Independent Study courses (Kinesiology 3990 or Kinesiology 4990; 6.0 credit hours) may be counted towards the major.

ac.Kinesiology (B.Sc.)

Department: Kinesiology and Physical Education

Kinesiology is the study of human movement from a multidisciplinary perspective. Students who enrol in the Kinesiology major for the B.Sc. will take a broad range of theoretical courses in the science dimensions of the discipline. Students are also required to complete physical activity courses as part of their program. The Kinesiology major for the B.Sc. offers students the opportunity to investigate the anatomical, biomechanical, neurological and physiological characteristics that underlie human movement across the spectrum from basic tasks such as reaching and walking to elite sport performance.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 24

Required courses:

Biology 1010 - Cellular Basis of Life

Kinesiology 1000 - Wellness and Physical Activity

Kinesiology 2200 - Research Methodologies

Kinesiology 2600 - Functional Human Anatomy

Kinesiology 2610 - Human Physiology

Kinesiology 2650 - Functional Biomechanics

Kinesiology 3500 - Nutrition and Physical Activity

Kinesiology 3610 - Exercise Physiology

Kinesiology 3630 - Growth, Development and Aging

Kinesiology 3650 - Biomechanics

Physics 1050 - Introduction to Biophysics

One of:

Chemistry 1000 - General Chemistry I

Chemistry 1110 - Chemistry for Life Sciences I

One of:

Neuroscience 2610 - Principles of Brain Structure and Function

Neuroscience 2620 - Principles of Behavioural Neuroscience

Two of:

Kinesiology 2130 - Humanities Perspectives

Kinesiology 2140 - Psychological Perspectives

Kinesiology 2150 - Sociological Perspectives

Kinesiology 2160 - Management Perspectives

Three additional courses (9.0 credit hours) in Kinesiology at the 3000/4000 level with a Science designation, excluding Kinesiology 3980 and Kinesiology 4980 (Applied Studies)

Two courses (6.0 credit hours) in Kinesiology at the 4000 level with a Science designation, excluding Kinesiology 4980 (Applied Studies)

One course (3.0 credit hours) in Mathematics at the 1000 level or higher

One course (3.0 credit hours) in Statistics at the 1000 level or higher

Two courses (6.0 credit hours) in Physical Activity at the 3000 level

Notes

To determine if a given course in Kinesiology has a Science designation, see List III: Science Courses.

No more than two Independent Study courses (Kinesiology 3990 or 4990; 6.0 credit hours) may be counted towards the major.

ad.Mathematics (B.Sc.)

Department: Mathematics and Computer Science

Mathematics is the study of structure and patterns in numbers and shapes. It is an active research area, providing a language, theories and models to solve complex problems across a wide variety of scientific, industrial and economic sectors. The program offers courses in four main areas: algebra, analysis, number theory and geometry, as well as statistics. Many students opt to combine mathematics with courses in physics, computer science, chemistry, economics, management or other areas of interest.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 19

Required courses:

Computer Science 1620 - Fundamentals of Programming I

Computer Science 2620 - Fundamentals of Programming II

Mathematics 1410 - Elementary Linear Algebra

Mathematics 2000 - Mathematical Concepts

Mathematics 3400 - Group and Ring Theory

Mathematics 3410 - Linear Algebra

Mathematics 3500 - Analysis I

Statistics 1770 - Introduction to Probability and Statistics

Statistics 3500 - Mathematical Probability

One of:

Mathematics 1560 - Calculus I

Mathematics 1565 - Accelerated Calculus I (recommended)

One of:

Mathematics 2560 - Calculus II

Mathematics 2565 - Accelerated Calculus II (recommended)

One of the following Streams (a. or b.):

a. Standard Stream

Mathematics 2570 - Calculus III

Mathematics 2580 - Calculus IV

b. Accelerated Stream

Mathematics 2575 - Accelerated Calculus III (recommended)

One additional course (3.0 credit hours) in Mathematics, Statistics, or Computer Science at the 2000 level or above

One additional course (3.0 credit hours) in Mathematics or Statistics at the 2000 level or above

1Three additional courses (9.0 credit hours) in Mathematics or Statistics at the 3000/4000 level

Two courses (6.0 credit hours) in Mathematics or Statistics at the 4000 level

Notes

1One of the additional 3000/4000-level courses may be replaced by a course from the following list:
Computer Science 3630 - Theoretical Foundations of Computing
Physics 3200 - Mechanics

Students who intend to take Physics 3200 as a course contributing to the Mathematics major should carefully plan their program to include the required prerequisites.

It is strongly recommended that a student attain a grade of 'C' or higher in any course used to satisfy prerequisites for courses in Computer Science, Mathematics, and Statistics.

Independent Study (1990, 2990, 3990, 4990) or Applied Study (2980, 3980, 4980) courses may not be used to meet the minimum Mathematics or Statistics course requirements above, except for the additional course for students completing the accelerated calculus stream. Mathematics 2090 (Number Systems) may not be used to meet any requirements for the major.

ae.Music (B.A.)

The major in Music for the B.A. is administered by the Faculty of Fine Arts. Please refer to the Faculty of Fine Arts section for more information on major requirements.

af.Neuroscience (B.Sc.)

Department: Neuroscience

The Neuroscience major explores how nervous systems work and requires courses from a range of departments. These courses investigate the processes by which information is transmitted within cells and between cells, and how particular neural systems produce perceptions, learning, memory, and behaviour. Brain and behavioural change during evolution, individual development, and pathology are all used to gain insight into how the nervous system functions.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 24

Required courses:

Biology 1010 - Cellular Basis of Life

Biology 1020 - Diversity of Life

Biology 2000 - Principles of Genetics

Neuroscience 2610 - Principles of Brain Structure and Function

Neuroscience 2620 - Principles of Behavioural Neuroscience

Neuroscience 3600 - Fundamental Neurobiology

Psychology 1010 - Introduction to Psychology A: Evolution, Mechanisms, and Cognition/Perception

Psychology 2330 - Learning and Cognition

Psychology 2700 - Behaviour and Evolution

Two of:

3Biochemistry 2000 - Introductory Biochemistry

Neuroscience 3610 - Human Neuropsychology

Neuroscience 3615 - Functional Neuroanatomy

Neuroscience 3625 - Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

One of:

Neuroscience 3645 - Cognitive Neuroscience I

Neuroscience 3655 - Cognitive Neuroscience II

Neuroscience 3660 - Neurobiological Basis of Learning and Memory in the Mammal

Neuroscience 3710 - Behaviour and the Evolution of Brains

One of:

Neuroscience 4630 - Neuroscience (Series)

Neuroscience 4980 - Applied Studies

Neuroscience 4990 - Independent Study

1Neuroscience 4995 - Undergraduate Thesis (6.0 credit hours)

One of:

Philosophy 2220 - Philosophy of Mind

2Philosophy 3402 - Biomedical Ethics

One of:

Physics 1000 - Introduction to Physics I

Physics 1050 - Introduction to Biophysics

One of:

One course (3.0 credit hours) in English at the 1000 level or higher

Writing 1000 - Introduction to Academic Writing

One of:

Neuroscience 3690 - Introduction to Programming and Statistics in MATLAB

2Psychology 2030 - Methods and Statistics B

Statistics 1770 - Introduction to Probability and Statistics

Two courses (6.0 credit hours) in Neuroscience or Psychology at the 3000/4000 level with a Science designation (see List III: Science Courses).

One of the following Streams (a. or b.):

Stream a:3

Biochemistry 2000 - Introductory Biochemistry

Chemistry 1110 - Chemistry for Life Sciences I

Chemistry 2120 - Chemistry for Life Sciences II

Two additional courses (6.0 credit hours) in Biology, Chemistry, Neuroscience, or Psychology at the 3000/4000 level with a Science Designation (see List III: Science Courses)

Stream b:

Chemistry 1000 - General Chemistry I

Chemistry 2000 - General Chemistry II

Chemistry 2500 - Organic Chemistry I

Chemistry 2600 - Organic Chemistry II

One of:

Mathematics 1410 - Elementary Linear Algebra

Mathematics 1560 - Calculus I

Mathematics 1565 - Accelerated Calculus I

Recommended courses:

Logic 1000 - Critical Thinking

Liberal Education 2200 - Problems and Puzzles

Notes

1If Neuroscience 4995 is chosen, the requirement for two additional courses at the 3000/4000 level in Neuroscience or Psychology with a Science designation is reduced to one additional course.

2This course has a prerequisite that is not required for the major.

3Students may not choose Stream a. if Biochemistry 2000 was chosen as part of the “Two of” list.

It is strongly recommended that students who are planning to pursue graduate studies in the Neurosciences consider the Undergraduate Thesis option and include the following courses in their program:

Neuroscience 3605 - Research Methods in Neuroscience
Neuroscience 3690 - Introduction to Programming and Statistics in MATLAB
Psychology 3400 - Advanced Research Design and Data Analysis

ag.Philosophy (B.A.)

Department: Philosophy

Philosophy means “love of wisdom.” Philosophers study the deep intellectual problems that underlie or unify other disciplines in the sciences and humanities. Courses in the reality stream inquire into the nature of knowledge, mind and matter, space and time, language and mathematics, religious beliefs, and the basis of science. Courses in the values stream probe the distinction between right and wrong, the nature of beauty, the assumptions behind political theories, and current ethical dilemmas. Logic studies the art and science of reasoning. All philosophy and logic courses place strong emphasis on developing the skills of clear writing and sound argumentation, and the ability to see beneath the surface of the apparently obvious.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 13

Required courses:

Two of (Logic):

Logic 1000 - Critical Thinking

Logic 2003 - Symbolic Logic I

Logic 3003 - Symbolic Logic II

Two of (History of Philosophy):

Philosophy 2010 - Ancient Philosophy

Philosophy 2030 - 17th-Century Philosophy: Descartes to Leibniz

Philosophy 3350 - Analytic Philosophy

Philosophy 3409 - 18th-Century Philosophy: Leibniz to Kant

Philosophy 3420 - Wittgenstein

One of (Philosophy of Values):

Philosophy 2001 - Introduction to Ethics

Philosophy 3401 - Social and Political Philosophy

Philosophy 3410 - Advanced Ethics

One of (Philosophy of Values):

Philosophy 2150 - Philosophy of Art

Philosophy 2236 - Environmental Philosophy

Philosophy 3402 - Biomedical Ethics

Philosophy 3404 - Philosophy of Law

Philosophy 3411 - Game Theory in Philosophy

Philosophy 3413 - Feminist Philosophy

Philosophy 3450 - Philosophy of War

Two of (Philosophy of Reality):

Philosophy 2002 - Belief, Truth, and Paradox

Philosophy 2210 - Philosophy of Religion

Philosophy 2220 - Philosophy of Mind

Philosophy 2233 - Philosophy and the World View of Science: Earth and Life Sciences

Philosophy 2234 - Philosophy and the World View of Science: Space, Time and Matter

Philosophy 3260 - Metaphysics

Philosophy 3270 - Theory of Knowledge

Philosophy 3280 - Philosophy of Language

One course (3.0 credit hours) in Philosophy or Logic at the 4000 level

Four additional courses (12.0 credit hours) in Philosophy or Logic

Notes

Offerings in the Philosophy 2000 and Philosophy 3000 series may be assigned to one of the lists (History, Values, or Reality) at the time of scheduling. Please refer to the current term timetable.

Students should take courses from as many instructors as possible, since the views of instructors on any given topic may vary significantly. Those intending to go on to graduate or professional schools should get more specific advice, particularly about Independent Study.

ah.Physics (B.Sc.)

Department: Physics and Astronomy

Physics is the study of matter and energy at all scales, from the sub-nuclear to the dimensions of the universe. It is the fundamental science - all other sciences and technologies rely on the principles of physics. Physics involves observing and understanding natural phenomena evident in the world around us: the seasons, the motion of objects, the flight of birds, the night sky, and the weather. The curriculum provides a comprehensive Physics major, built on a foundation of courses in the first two years which lead to more advanced and specialized areas in the senior years, preparing students for postgraduate studies, or for careers in academia, industry and the public sector.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 26

Required courses:

Chemistry 1000 - General Chemistry I

Computer Science 1620 - Fundamentals of Programming I

Mathematics 1410 - Elementary Linear Algebra

Physics 2000 - Introduction to Physics II

Physics 2120 - Introduction to Physics III

Physics 2130 - Waves, Optics and Sound

Physics 2150 - Quantum Mechanics I

Physics 2800 - Methods in Mathematical Physics

Physics 2925 - Introduction to Experimental Physics

Physics 3150 - Quantum Mechanics II

Physics 3175 - Electricity and Magnetism

Physics 3200 - Mechanics

Physics 3400 - Thermal and Statistical Physics

Physics 3750 - Contemporary Physics

Physics 3800 - Methods of Theoretical Physics

Physics 3925 - Experimental Physics

Physics 4175 - The Electromagnetic Interaction

One of:

Mathematics 1560 - Calculus I

Mathematics 1565 - Accelerated Calculus I (recommended)

One of:

Mathematics 2560 - Calculus II

Mathematics 2565 - Accelerated Calculus II (recommended)

One of the following Streams (a. or b.):

a. Standard Stream:

Mathematics 2570 - Calculus III

Mathematics 2580 - Calculus IV

b. Accelerated Stream:

Mathematics 2575 - Accelerated Calculus III (recommended)

1One additional course (3.0 credit hours) in Mathematics

One of:

Biology 1010 - Cellular Basis of Life

Biology 1020 - Diversity of Life

One of:

Physics 1000 - Introduction to Physics I

Physics 1050 - Introduction to Biophysics

2Engineering 2060 - Engineering Mechanics

One of:

Physics 4150 - Quantum Mechanics III

Physics 4200 - Advanced Mechanics

Two of:3

Physics 3650 - Optics

Physics 3840 - Introduction to Computational Physics

Physics 3900 - Intermediate Experimental Physics (Series)

Physics 4000 - Advanced Studies in Physics (Series)

Physics 4100 - Nuclear and Particle Physics

Physics 4250 - Solid State Physics

Notes

1Mathematics 3600 (Differential Equations I) is recommended.

2Engineering 2000 and Mathematics 1565 are prerequisites for Engineering 2060.

3Offerings in Physics 3850 (Topics) and Physics 4850 (Topics) and either Physics 4150 or Physics 4200 (if not used above) may be used to satisfy this requirement.

Since a number of courses are offered only on alternate years, students are advised to plan carefully to include the desired courses. In all cases, students (especially those planning for advanced studies in Physics) are encouraged to seek advice on their programs from any member of the Department of Physics and Astronomy.

It is recommended that students majoring in Physics include in their program courses in Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, and Mathematics.

It is strongly recommended that a student attain a grade of 'C' or higher in any course used to satisfy prerequisites for courses in Physics and Mathematics.

Concentration: Theoretical Physics (optional)

Students completing the major in Physics for the B.Sc. may declare a concentration in Theoretical Physics.

Requirements:

Students may be considered for entry to the Concentration in Theoretical Physics after completion of a minimum of 10 courses (30.0 credit hours) in Physics. A minimum GPA of 3.20 calculated on all Physics courses, and a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.00 is required for entry to the concentration.

Continuation:

Students admitted to the Concentration in Theoretical Physics must maintain a cumulative GPA of 3.00. Students who fall below 3.00 will be removed from the concentration.

Required courses:

1Physics 3840 - Introduction to Computational Physics

One of:

Physics 4150 - Quantum Mechanics III

Physics 4200 - Advanced Mechanics

Three of:

Physics 4000 - Advanced Studies in Physics (Theoretical Physics I)

Physics 4000 - Advanced Studies in Physics (Theoretical Physics II)

Physics 4100 - Nuclear and Particle Physics

Physics 4250 - Solid State Physics

Physics 4995 - Undergraduate Thesis (6.0 credit hours)

Notes

1Students who complete Physics 3840 as part of the major may substitute Mathematics 3600 (Differential Equations I) in the concentration.

An alternate Physics course may be counted toward the concentration requirements provided (1) it is clearly related to Theoretical Physics and (2) it is approved by the Chair of the Department of Physics and Astronomy.

Students may not double count Physics courses required for the Concentration in Theoretical Physics in fulfilling requirements for the major in Physics.

For students who complete all requirements, the Concentration in Theoretical Physics will be acknowledged on the official academic transcript.

ai.Political Science (B.A.)

Department: Political Science

Political Science is the study of government institutions, political behaviour, and political theory. You need no political ambitions to take it. Political Science is both empirical (qualitative and quantitative) and theoretical. Empirically the focus is on Canadian politics (from national to local), comparative politics (of differing regimes in selected regions of the world), and international relations. Theoretically the focus is on the ideas and visions of justice and the good life that political leaders and citizens aspire to and even stake their lives on. Emphasis is placed throughout on critical reading, writing, and analytical skills, encompassing the study of a wide array of materials, including legal, philosophical, literary, and historical documents, as well as statistical analysis.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 13

Required courses:

Political Science 1000 - Introduction to Political Science

Political Science 2110 - International Relations

Political Science 2210 - Canadian Politics and Government

Political Science 2310 - Comparative Politics and Government

Political Science 2511 - Introduction to Political Theory

Political Science 2610 - Introductory Research Methods

Five courses (15.0 credit hours) in Political Science at the 3000/4000 level

1Two courses (6.0 credit hours) in Political Science at the 4000 level, excluding Political Science 4980 (Applied Study) and Political Science 4990 (Independent Study)

Notes

1Students completing Political Science 4995 (6.0 credit hours) as part of this requirement will still need at least one classroom-based 4000-level Political Science course (3.0 credit hours).

aj.Psychology (B.A.)

Department: Psychology

Psychology seeks to understand the causes of behaviour in humans and other animals. Such behaviour can range from the automatic, unconscious, and reflexive sucking and grasping behaviours of infants through largely unconscious behaviours such as finding food and choosing a mate; to sophisticated, conscious behaviours such as medical decision making. Students will investigate the nature of human and animal thought processes as well as the evolutionary, social, and cultural factors that frame the development of human capacities. We consider the best preparation, at the undergraduate level, for graduate study in all areas of psychology, whether research or applied, to be a strong and broad background in experimental psychology.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 18

Required courses:

Neuroscience 2610 - Principles of Brain Structure and Function

Neuroscience 2620 - Principles of Behavioural Neuroscience

Psychology 1010 - Introduction to Psychology A: Evolution, Mechanisms, and Cognition/Perception

Psychology 1020 - Introduction to Psychology B: Developmental, Sociocultural, and Abnormal

Psychology 1030 - Methods and Statistics A

Psychology 2005 - Psychological Sketches: Straight from the Researchers

Psychology 2030 - Methods and Statistics B

Psychology 2110 - Introduction to Child Development

Psychology 2330 - Learning and Cognition

Psychology 2700 - Behaviour and Evolution

Psychology 2800 - Social Psychology

One of (Developmental):

Psychology 3000 - Issues in Psychology (Series)

Psychology 3105 - Adolescent Development

Psychology 3120 - Psychology of Aging

One of (Sociocultural):

Psychology 3240/Linguistics 3240 - Psychology of Language

Psychology 3330 - Social Cognition

Psychology 3805 - Social Learning and Culture

Psychology 3825 - Human Sociality: Ourselves and Others

Psychology 3845 - Issues in Sexuality

One of (Abnormal):

Psychology 3130 - Developmental Psychopathology

Psychology 3500 - Abnormal Psychology

Psychology 3910 - Psychology of Criminal Behaviour

One of:

Psychology 4210 - Speech Development

Psychology 4220 - The Psychology of Choice

Psychology 4460 - Celluloid Psychology

Psychology 4505 - Biological Bases of Mental Disorders

Psychology 4520 - Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Psychology 4540 - Current Issues in Psychopathology

Psychology 4550 - Abnormal Psychology (Series)

Psychology 4710 - Human Health, Behaviour, and Social Technologies

Psychology 4830 - Cultural Organisms

Three additional courses (9.0 credit hours) in Psychology at the 3000 or 4000 level, at least one of which must be designated as Social Science

Notes

To determine if a given course has a Social Science designation, see List II: Social Science Courses (see School of Liberal Education, Liberal Education List Requirement).

Students who wish to pursue graduate studies in Psychology should consider the Undergraduate Thesis option and should take Psychology 3400. Students who wish to pursue graduate studies in Neuroscience should, in addition, take Neuroscience 3605, and may wish to consider a major in Neuroscience (see the Neuroscience major earlier in this section).

Concentration: Animal Behaviour (optional)

Students completing the major in Psychology for the B.A. may declare a Concentration in Animal Behaviour.

Admission Requirements:

Applicants must have completed the following courses with a minimum grade of “B” in each, and present a minimum GPA of 3.00 (calculated on all completed university-level courses) to be eligible for the concentration:

Neuroscience 2610 - Principles of Brain Structure and Function
Neuroscience 2620 - Principles of Behavioural Neuroscience
Psychology 2700 - Behaviour and Evolution

Required courses:

Four of:

Biology 3300 - Evolution

Biology 4740 - Behavioural Ecology

Neuroscience 3660 - Neurobiological Basis of Learning and Memory in the Mammal

Neuroscience 3710 - Behaviour and the Evolution of Brains

Neuroscience 3720 - Play Behaviour

Neuroscience 4600 - Understanding Behaviour

Psychology 3525 - Hormones and Behaviour

Psychology 3760 - Animal Communication

Psychology 3770 - Primate Lives and Human Cognitive Evolution

Psychology 3780 - Animal and Human Personalities

Psychology 3790 - Human Behavioural Ecology

Psychology 3805 - Social Learning and Culture

One Independent Study or Applied Studies course at the 3000 or 4000 level with a focus on animal behaviour

Notes

Topics courses (3850 or 4850) may be counted towards the concentration provided (1) they are clearly related to animal behaviour and (2) they are approved by the Chair of Psychology.

The Independent Study or Applied Study must be completed with a mentor from the approved mentors list. Please contact the Department of Psychology for more information.

Students may not double count courses required for the Concentration in Animal Behaviour in fulfilling requirements for the major. In such cases, students must select another option.

For students who complete all requirements, the Concentration in Animal Behaviour will be acknowledged on the official academic transcript.

ak.Psychology (B.Sc.)

Department: Psychology

Psychology seeks to understand the causes of behaviour in humans and other animals. Such behaviour can range from the automatic, unconscious, and reflexive sucking and grasping behaviours of infants through largely unconscious behaviours such as finding food and choosing a mate; to sophisticated, conscious behaviours such as medical decision making. Students will investigate the nature of human and animal thought processes as well as the evolutionary, social, and cultural factors that frame the development of human capacities. We consider the best preparation, at the undergraduate level, for graduate study in all areas of psychology, whether research or applied, to be a strong and broad background in experimental psychology.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 18

Required courses:

Neuroscience 2610 - Principles of Brain Structure and Function

Neuroscience 2620 - Principles of Behavioural Neuroscience

Psychology 1010 - Introduction to Psychology A: Evolution, Mechanisms, and Cognition/Perception

Psychology 1020 - Introduction to Psychology B: Developmental, Sociocultural, and Abnormal

Psychology 1030 - Methods and Statistics A

Psychology 2005 - Psychological Sketches: Straight from the Researchers

Psychology 2030 - Methods and Statistics B

Psychology 2110 - Introduction to Child Development

Psychology 2330 - Learning and Cognition

Psychology 2700 - Behaviour and Evolution

Psychology 2800 - Social Psychology

One of (Evolution):

Biology 3300 - Evolution

Neuroscience 3710 - Behaviour and the Evolution of Brains

Neuroscience 3720 - Play Behaviour

Psychology 3635 - Evolution and Psychobiology of Religious Behaviour

Psychology 3760 - Animal Communication

Psychology 3790 - Human Behavioural Ecology

One of (Mechanisms):

Neuroscience 3600 - Fundamental Neurobiology

Neuroscience 3610 - Human Neuropsychology

Neuroscience 3615 - Functional Neuroanatomy

Neuroscience 3640 - Brain Plasticity and Memory

Psychology 3525 - Hormones and Behaviour

Psychology 3535 - Drugs and Behaviour

One of (Cognition and Perception):

Neuroscience 3645 - Cognitive Neuroscience I

Psychology 3050 - Human Cognition

Psychology 3360 - Sensation and Perception

Psychology 3770 - Primate Lives and Human Cognitive Evolution

One of:

Psychology 4210 - Speech Development

Psychology 4220 - The Psychology of Choice

Psychology 4460 - Celluloid Psychology

Psychology 4505 - Biological Bases of Mental Disorders

Psychology 4520 - Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Psychology 4540 - Current Issues in Psychopathology

Psychology 4550 - Abnormal Psychology (Series)

Psychology 4710 - Human Health, Behaviour, and Social Technologies

Psychology 4830 - Cultural Organisms

Three additional courses (9.0 credit hours) in Psychology or Neuroscience at the 3000 or 4000 level, at least one of which must be designated as Science

Notes

To determine if a given course has a Science designation, see List III: Science Courses (see School of Liberal Education, Liberal Education List Requirement).

Students who wish to pursue graduate studies in Psychology should consider the Undergraduate Thesis option and should take Psychology 3400. Students who wish to pursue graduate studies in Neuroscience should, in addition, take Neuroscience 3605, and may wish to consider a major in Neuroscience (see the Neuroscience major earlier in this section).

Concentration: Animal Behaviour (optional)

Students completing the major in Psychology for the B.Sc. may declare a Concentration in Animal Behaviour.

Admission Requirements:

Applicants must have completed the following courses with a minimum grade of “B” in each, and present a minimum GPA of 3.00 (calculated on all completed university-level courses) to be eligible for the concentration:

Neuroscience 2610 - Principles of Brain Structure and Function
Neuroscience 2620 - Principles of Behavioural Neuroscience
Psychology 2700 - Behaviour and Evolution

Required courses:

Four of:

Biology 3300 - Evolution

Biology 4740 - Behavioural Ecology

Neuroscience 3660 - Neurobiological Basis of Learning and Memory in the Mammal

Neuroscience 3710 - Behaviour and the Evolution of Brains

Neuroscience 3720 - Play Behaviour

Neuroscience 4600 - Understanding Behaviour

Psychology 3525 - Hormones and Behaviour

Psychology 3760 - Animal Communication

Psychology 3770 - Primate Lives and Human Cognitive Evolution

Psychology 3780 - Animal and Human Personalities

Psychology 3790 - Human Behavioural Ecology

Psychology 3805 - Social Learning and Culture

One Independent Study or Applied Studies course at the 3000 or 4000 level with a focus on animal behaviour

Notes

Topics courses (3850 or 4850) may be counted towards the concentration provided (1) they are clearly related to animal behaviour and (2) they are approved by the Chair of Psychology.

The Independent Study or Applied Study must be completed with a mentor from the approved mentors list. Please contact the Department of Psychology for more information.

Students may not double count courses required for the Concentration in Animal Behaviour in fulfilling requirements for the major. In such cases, students must select another option.

For students who complete all requirements, the Concentration in Animal Behaviour will be acknowledged on the official academic transcript.

al.Religious Studies (B.A.)

Department: Religious Studies

Religious Studies aims to enhance critical understanding of the phenomenon of religion and the diversity of religious experience and expression from antiquity to the present in both Eastern and Western traditions. This field of study uses a wide range of tools and methods to describe, analyze, and understand religion in human experience. Fundamental issues such as belief, texts, worship, ritual, concepts of the divine, the human condition, and the historical development of particular religions are examined. The academic study of religion requires a measure of neutrality, whereby no particular religious tradition is privileged. A major in Religious Studies provides a broad-based understanding of the diverse religious world and requires students to study general themes and issues as well as specific traditions from both Eastern and Western religions.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 14

Required courses:

Religious Studies 1000 - Introduction to World Religions

Religious Studies 2001 - Religion, Worldviews, and Identity

Religious Studies 4001 - Concepts and Methods in the Study of Religion

One of (Eastern Religions):

Religious Studies 2100 - The Hindu Tradition

Religious Studies 2200 - The Buddhist Tradition

Religious Studies 2330 - Chinese Religions

Religious Studies 2360 - Japanese Religions

One of (Western Religions):

Religious Studies 2400 - Judaism

Religious Studies 2450 - Bible Survey

Religious Studies 2500 - Christianity

Religious Studies 2600 - Islam

One of:

Religious Studies 4000 - Seminars in Religious Studies (Series)

Religious Studies 4110 - Seminars in Eastern Religions (Series)

Religious Studies 4400 - Seminars in Western Religions (Series)

One of:1

Anthropology 2550 - Anthropology of Religion

Anthropology 3500 - Ritual, Practice, and Performance

Archaeology 3171 - Ancient Israel

Hebrew 1000 - Elementary Hebrew I

Hebrew 1100 - Elementary Hebrew II

History 3007 - Greek and Roman Mythology

History 3103 - The Crusades

History 3402 - The Reformation

Indigenous Studies 2000 - Native American Philosophy

Indigenous Studies 3000 - Native American Philosophy - Advanced

Latin 1000 - Elementary Latin I

Latin 1100 - Elementary Latin II

Philosophy 2010 - Ancient Philosophy

Philosophy 2210 - Philosophy of Religion

Philosophy 3260 - Metaphysics

Political Science 3500 - Pre-Modern Political Thought (Series)

Political Science 3525 - Politics of Reason and Revelation

Sociology 3330 - Sociology of Religion

Two additional courses (6.0 credit hours) in Religious Studies at the 2000 level selected from Eastern Religions or Western Religions

2Five additional courses (15.0 credit hours) in Religious Studies at the 3000/4000 level, excluding Religious Studies 3980 and Religious Studies 4980 (Applied Studies), and Religious Studies 4995 (Undergraduate Thesis)

Notes

1Most courses in this list have prerequisites that are not part of the major.

2A maximum of one Independent Study course (3.0 credit hours) may be used to fulfill the 3000/4000-level requirement.

From time to time, Topics courses in other disciplines will address the subject of religion. These will be considered for credit toward a Religious Studies major on an individual basis and must be approved by the Department Chair.

am.Remote Sensing (B.Sc.)

Departments: Geography and Environment, and Physics and Astronomy

Remote Sensing involves the acquisition and analysis of photographs and images from airplanes, satellites, and other platforms for obtaining important information about the Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere, as well as other planets and bodies. The Remote Sensing major provides applied training in laboratory and field settings coupled with a solid theoretical and experimental foundation. This is the only remote sensing program of its kind in Canada; therefore, graduates have unique qualifications for direct employment in private industry, government, and universities, as well as for entry to advanced graduate-level studies.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 21

Required courses:

Computer Science 1620 - Fundamentals of Programming I

Geography 1000 - Introduction to Physical Geography

Geography 2030 - Geomorphology

Geography 2300 - Weather and Climate

Geography 2700 - Geographical Data and Analysis

Geography 2735 - Introduction to Geographical Information Science

Geography 3720 - Remote Sensing

Geography 4725 - Advanced Remote Sensing

Mathematics 1410 - Elementary Linear Algebra

Physics 2000 - Introduction to Physics II

Physics 2120 - Introduction to Physics III

Physics 2130 - Waves, Optics and Sound

Physics 2925 - Introduction to Experimental Physics

Physics 3650 - Optics

Remote Sensing 4650 - Physics of Remote Sensing

One of:

Geography 4710 - Remote Sensing Field Techniques

Geography 4751 - Spatial Modelling

Geography 4753 - Seminar in Remote Sensing

One of:

Mathematics 1560 - Calculus I

Mathematics 1565 - Accelerated Calculus I (recommended)

One of:

Mathematics 2560 - Calculus II

Mathematics 2565 - Accelerated Calculus II (recommended)

One of the following Streams (a. or b.):

a. Standard Stream:

Mathematics 2570 - Calculus III

Mathematics 2580 - Calculus IV

b. Accelerated Stream:

Mathematics 2575 - Accelerated Calculus III (recommended)

One additional course (3.0 credit hours) in Mathematics

One of:

Physics 1000 - Introduction to Physics I

Physics 1050 - Introduction to Biophysics

Engineering 2060 - Engineering Mechanics

Recommended courses:

Geography 3710 - Field Techniques in the Earth Sciences

Geography 3740 - Geographical Information Systems

Any of Geography 4710, Geography 4751, and Geography 4753 not selected in the major

Physics 3175 - Electricity and Magnetism

Physics 3840 - Introduction to Computational Physics

1Computer Science 3620 - Data Structures and Algorithms

2Computer Science 3710 - Computer Graphics

3Statistics 2780 - Statistical Inference

Notes

1Prerequisites required: Computer Science 1820 and Computer Science 2620.

2Prerequisite required: Computer Science 2620.

3Prerequisite required: Statistics 1770.

an.Sociology (B.A.)

Department: Sociology

Sociology provides the conceptual and methodological tools with which to understand society. Its primary goal is to stimulate sociological thinking, which involves the application of imagination and critical analysis to the many facets of social life. Ideally, this encourages not only the development of analytical insight, but also the application of Sociology to social problems and issues.

The program provides instruction for both the liberal arts student and the student planning advanced studies or a career related to Sociology. A wide range of courses is offered in sociological theory, methods and topics reflecting a variety of contemporary social issues.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 16

Required courses:

Sociology 1000 - Introduction to Sociology

Sociology 2050 - Social Inequality

Sociology 2100 - Research Methodology

Sociology 2130 - Quantitative Research Practice

Sociology 2300 - Committing Sociology

Sociology 3120 - Qualitative Research Methods

Sociology 3210 - Classical Sociological Theory

Sociology 3220 - Contemporary Sociological Theory

Five additional courses (15.0 credit hours) in Sociology at the 3000/4000 level

Three courses (9.0 credit hours) in Sociology at the 4000 level

ao.Urban and Regional Studies (B.A.)

The major in Urban and Regional Studies includes courses in disciplines that have traditionally focused on cities, such as Anthropology, Economics, Geography, Political Science, Sociology, and Statistics. It provides a broad range of conceptual and practical tools for students to understand and play a role in the planning, administration, and governance of human settlements from towns to metropolitan regions. Courses delve into the physical, social, spatial, economic, political, and planning factors that shape urban areas. Topics such as architecture and the city, urban and regional planning, urban systems, globalization, and issues such as immigration, aging, homelessness, and environmental sustainability may be included.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 21

Required core (10 courses):

Geography 2535 - Introduction to Planning

Geography 4500 - Contemporary Issues and Problems in Planning (Series)

Three of (Introductory Courses):

Anthropology 1000 - The Anthropological Perspective

Economics 1010 - Introduction to Microeconomics

Economics 1012 - Introduction to Macroeconomics

Geography 1000 - Introduction to Physical Geography

Geography 1200 - Introduction to Human Geography

History 1000 - The Western World or History 1200 - World History

Political Science 1000 - Introduction to Political Science

Sociology 1000 - Introduction to Sociology

Two of (Urban Studies):

Anthropology 3280 - Urban Anthropology

Geography 3230 - Urban Social Geography

Geography 3245 - Urbanization in Developing Countries

One of (Statistical Methods):

Geography 2700 - Geographical Data and Analysis

Sociology 2130 - Quantitative Research Practice

Statistics 1770 - Introduction to Probability and Statistics

One of (Research Techniques):

Economics 2900 - Economics and Business Statistics

Geography 2735 - Introduction to Geographical Information Science

Political Science 2610 - Introductory Research Methods

Sociology 2100 - Research Methodology

Sociology 3110 - Survey Research

Sociology 3120 - Qualitative Research Methods

Statistics 2780 - Statistical Inference

One of:

One course (3.0 credit hours) in English at the 1000 level or higher

Writing 1000 - Introduction to Academic Writing

Independent Study or Applied Studies (one course)

One Independent Study or Applied Studies course at the 3000/4000 level. This course must be (1) clearly related to Urban and Regional Studies, (2) multidisciplinary, and (3) approved by the Urban and Regional Studies Coordinator.

Options (10 courses):1

The ten options courses (30.0 credit hours) must draw from at least two and no more than three of the following disciplines. At least six of these courses (18.0 credit hours) must be at the 3000/4000 level.

1.Anthropology

Anthropology 2210 - Cultures of the World (Series)
Anthropology 3280 - Urban Anthropology

2.Economics

Economics 2750 - Quantitative Methods in Economics
Economics 2900 - Economics and Business Statistics
Economics 3010 - Intermediate Microeconomic Theory
Economics 3012 - Intermediate Macroeconomic Theory
Economics 3750 - Economics of Public Spending
Economics 3950 - Econometrics I

3.Geography

Geography 1200 - Introduction to Human Geography
Geography 2210 - Spatial Organization of Economic Activity
Geography 3075 - Environmental Resources Management
Geography 3225/International Management 3225 - Industrial Location and Globalization of Enterprise
Geography 3230 - Urban Social Geography
Geography 3245 - Urbanization in Developing Countries
Geography 3750 - GIS Applications in Human Geography
Geography 4220 - Advanced Economic Geography (Series)
Geography 4240 - Advanced Urban Geography (Series)
Additional offerings of Geography 4500 - Contemporary Issues and Problems in Planning (Series)

4.History

History 2001 - Main Themes in Ancient History

5.Political Science

Political Science 2210 - Canadian Politics and Government
Political Science 2511 - Introduction to Political Theory
Political Science 3210 - Local Government and Politics
Political Science 3250 - Alberta Politics and Government
Political Science 3260 - Canadian Public Policy
Political Science 3400 - Public Administration
Political Science 3511 - Political Thought Since 1500 (Series)

6.Sociology

Sociology 2010 - Canadian Society
Sociology 2600 - The Individual and Society
Sociology 3020 - Social Problems
Sociology 3050 - Sociology of Race and Ethnicity
Sociology 3210 - Classical Sociological Theory
Sociology 3220 - Contemporary Sociological Theory

Notes

1Many of the Options courses require prerequisites, thus students should choose courses with this in mind.

A maximum of two courses (6.0 credit hours) chosen from Applied Studies, Independent Study, Series, and Topics courses in any of the above disciplines may be counted toward the Option courses in the major provided (1) they are clearly related to Urban and Regional Studies and (2) they are approved by the Urban and Regional Studies Coordinator.

ap.Women and Gender Studies (B.A.)

Department: Women and Gender Studies

Women and Gender Studies examines the historical and contemporary conditions of women and men in society. By using feminist theories and research methodologies, students will broaden their knowledge of various power relations shaping women's lives, bodies, experiences, labour, and scholarship. Students will explore feminism as an important influence in political and societal change. The program draws on a vibrant community of women scholars, contemporary research, and activism inside and outside the University to explore a breadth of social issues. In Women and Gender Studies classes, students will develop an in-depth understanding of how current and historical events, ideas, and institutions have been structured by gender, ethnicity, race, age, ability, class, and sexuality.

Please refer to the program website for more information.

Number of courses required for the major: 13

Required courses:

Women and Gender Studies 1000 - Introduction to Women and Gender Studies

Women and Gender Studies 2300 - Feminist Theoretical Frameworks

Women and Gender Studies 2600 - Activism and Advocacy

Women and Gender Studies 2700 - Feminist Approaches to Research

Six courses (18.0 credit hours) in Women and Gender Studies at the 3000/4000 level

Three additional courses (9.0 credit hours) in Women and Gender Studies

Notes

With the permission of the Department Chair, students may take a maximum of two courses (6.0 credit hours) from other disciplines which offer related or complementary course materials.

Students may take more than one offering of a Series course or more than one Independent Study for credit if the offerings (as indicated by the specific titles) are distinct.

aq.Double Majors

Students completing the Bachelor of Arts may declare and complete two established majors for the B.A., and students completing the Bachelor of Science may declare and complete two established majors for the B.Sc. Students interested in completing an arts major and a science major may refer to the Bachelor of Arts and Science (BASc.).

Admission Requirements

Students interested in a second major should begin their studies in a single major and apply for the second major at a later date. To be approved for the declaration of a second major, the following requirements must be met (in addition to high school requirements - see Admission):

1.A minimum cumulative GPA of 3.00 on the completion of at least 10 courses (30.0 credit hours) at the University of Lethbridge.

2.Completion of at least one course (3.0 credit hours) in the main discipline of the major. For example, students wishing to declare a second major in Biochemistry must have completed at least one course labeled Biochemistry.

Individual Multidisciplinary majors and General majors are ineligible for double major designation. Double counting of courses is not allowed. Students choosing to complete two majors may need to complete more than the minimum 40 courses for the degree depending on the choice of majors.

The Faculty cannot guarantee that course sequencing and Timetables will accommodate all double major combinations within eight consecutive regular terms of work.

Students who have completed two majors at the time of graduation without having previously declared a second major may still apply to convocate with both majors.

Interested students are encouraged to consult with academic advisors regarding double majors.

ar.Individual Multidisciplinary Majors

Students may establish Individual Multidisciplinary majors.

An Individual Multidisciplinary major must represent an identifiable and significant body of knowledge and entail in-depth study rather than a superficial survey of a broad topic. For the most part, the program is expected to be derived from the existing curriculum in Arts and Science.

An Individual Multidisciplinary major program consists of 20-28 courses with the following structure:

1.Required Core

The core of the major must contain a minimum of eight and a maximum of 20 required courses providing a broad-based familiarity with the major. These core courses must be taken from at least two disciplines.

2.An Independent Study at the 3000 or 4000 level.

3.Options

The remaining courses in the Individual Multidisciplinary major must be chosen from a list of optional courses. The chosen courses must be from at least two disciplines.

4.At least six of the courses must be at the 3000 or 4000 level, one of which must be at the 4000 level.

Students are encouraged to apply early to establish an Individual Multidisciplinary major and also to explore potential programs with faculty members prior to making an application.

An application to establish an Individual Multidisciplinary major must be submitted to the Dean. Approval of an Individual Multidisciplinary major by Arts and Science Council must be obtained prior to registration in the final 10 courses in the degree. Students are advised that formulation and approval of a program normally takes up to six months after the initial application and thus applications should be submitted in sufficient time to allow processing.

The Individual Multidisciplinary major shall be formulated by a committee, chaired by the Dean and composed of the student and faculty representatives, appointed by their departments, from at least two appropriate departments chosen by the Dean.

During its deliberations the committee shall consult all departments represented in the major. Before being submitted to the Arts and Science Curriculum Committee, the proposed program shall be approved by the Chairs of the departments represented on the committee.

Students interested in an Individual Multidisciplinary major should contact the Dean.